The Great Depression in Canada

  • Period: to

    The Great Depression

  • Women are not consider persons

    Women are not consider persons
    April 28, women are not consider persons decision by Supreme court of Canada
  • Penny postage- the rate deacreasd

    Penny postage-December 23, the rate will decreased to 2 cents per letter, this will cause post office to lose 200 thousand dollars in revenue
  • Recession Begins

    Recession begins in August, two months before the stock market crash. During this two month period of recession, production declined at an annual rate of 20 percent, wholesale prices at 7.5 percent and personal income at 5 percent.
  • Women = Persons

    The Imperial Privy Council ruled that womrn were legally "persons" anf therefore could hold seats in the Canadian Senate.
  • Selling of Stocks

    The selling of stocks on the New York Stock Exchange accelerated, leading to panic selling and tumbling prices.
  • Black Tuesday

    The Stock Market Crash of 1929 came to be known as "Black Tuesday". The value of stocks on the New York Stock Market continues its dramatic decline.
  • Stock Market Crash #2

    A second stock market crash hit Canada.
  • Immigration Laws restrictions in US

    The U.S. State department restricts immigration of foreign laborers to combat unemployment
  • Hoover established committee for Unemployment Relief (US)

    Hoover establishes committee for Unemployment relief
  • Soup Kitchens being established across the country

  • Unemployment Relief Act passed by Parliament

  • "Prosperity is just around the corner"

    President Hoover declares that the worst effects of te deppression will be over within 90 days. Which proves to be wrong
  • Hoover signs "Old Ironsides" legislation (US)

    this legislation appropriating $300,000 for restoration efforts (to bring people out of the great depression)
  • Hoover signs Moot-Hawly Tariff Bill

    This placed the largest tariffs ever on American goods, especially significant on minerals, chemicals, textiles and farm goods
  • Crowds demanding relief in Vancouver

    Riots broke out in Vancouver; 29 charged with vagrancy
  • The Beauharnois Scandal breaks out

    The Beauharnois scandal, the discovery that a company had bribed the Liberal party before the 1930 election, tainting reputation of Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King.
  • US economic troubles spread, affecting world market.

    The U.S. economic crisis spread to Europe as American investments decline and trade decreases; the United States pulls back from international affairs and looks increasingly inward. (US)
  • Two dust storms bring tons of silt in Winnipeg12 Jan 1931

    This made life for farmers unbearable as they could not plough or harvest their land
  • Nevada legalizes gambling (US)

    Nevada legalizes gambling.
  • Winnipeg, demonstrates hospitalized after unemployed riot.

    Six demonstrators became hospitalized after a riot between police and the unemployed. The riot began when a crowd of 6000 gathered at the Legislative Buildings. Inside their leaders were meeting with Premier John Bracken, to whom they presented their appeals for assistance. Their principal request was for a non-contributory form of unemployment insurance. When the meeting ended, members of the crowd left the legislative grounds, and in some instances disrupted traffic. When
  • PM Bennett denies plea for relief.

    Prime Minister Bennett dismisses unemployed men’s plea for dole.
  • Angry Nova Scotians boycott Ontario goods.

    Nova Scotia,angered at Ontario for not their buying goods, boycott Ontario goods
  • Austria endures steep economic decline, negatively affecting Europe's economy.

    Austria’s largest bank goes bankrupt, starting a European financial meltdown
  • PM Bennett announces he will be paying relief to prairie farmers.

    Prime Minister Bennett announces that he is going to submit $25 million in relief to prairie farmers.
  • Red Cross aids farmers in the west

    Red Cross provides relief and aid for farmers in the west.
  • Relief camps open in British Columbia.

    As unemployment increases relief camps were started in B.C.
  • In Bienfait, Saskatchewan Coal miners strike.

    Coal miners go on strike for restoration of wages cut by the mine operators, for better working conditions, and for recognition of the newly formed Mine Workers’ Union of Canada.
  • Unemployment in BC at 28%

    Unemployment in BC at 28% - those in lumber mills and factory plants hit hardest
  • Destitute men take shelter in a "jungle"

    Destitute men take shelter in a ‘jungle’ due to lack of resources.
  • Coal miners continue strike resulting in death.

    Miners started an illegal strike resulting in 3 dead, 23 wounded, and 14 arrested.
  • Miners vote to accept agreement and end strike.

    Miners vote to accept an agreement ending their strike, even though the settlement satisfies few of their demands. The RCMP and Attorney General M.A. MacPherson intimidated
  • Statute of Westminster goes into effect:

    Canada is granted full legislative independence in national and international affairs, with the Crown represented by the Governor General.
  • Reconstruction Finance Corporation Formed (US)

    Congress established the Reconstruction Finance Corporation (R.F.C). The R.F.C was permitted to lend 2 billion dollars to banks, insurance companies, building and loan associations, agricultural credit organizations and railroads.
  • Department of National Defence establishes work camps

    A large number of Canadians had to Go onthe dole" or work in relief camps for 15 cents a day
  • Reconstruction Finance Corporation (US)

    The R.C.F was authorized to lend needy states sums from the National Treasury for money target relief as wells as public works projects
  • Lowest Employment Rate

    1933, was the worst year of the depression with unemployment peaking at 25.2% with ( 1 in 4 people unemployed ) in 1933 .
  • Hitler Becomes Chancellor of Germany

    Adolf Hitler became the chancellor of Germany and opened the first concentration camp at Dachau.
  • Unemployment reached an all-time high

    Unemployment levels reaches 30 percent in Canada (1/3 of work force out of work)
  • US Banking Problems

    10's of thousands travelled the road and rail in America looking for work , and the US banking system which was under great strain was propped up by the US government ( US banking act of 1933 )to try and stop the panic of people withdrawing their money from the banks
  • Continuing Drought

    The continuing drought in the midwest made even more of the land into dust bowls
  • Newfoundland Loses Democracy

    Nfld lost democracy in its government system
  • Agricultural Adjustment Act

    This Act got passed to help meet the need effective farm relief. This law also sought to reduce production of the huge agricultural surpluses that depressed market prices. The Agricultural Adjustment Act (also know as AAA) set a pattern for making direct payments to farmers under a wide variety of programs during the remains of the 20th century.
  • Federal Emergency Relief Administration

    This was a program that was very important to farmers. During the time of it, prices rose, and the needs of production and market were in better balance.
  • End of 1933

    By the end of 1933, approximately 4000 banks had suspended operations throughout the year.
  • The General National Population (GNP) rises 7.7 percent after dipping 2.1 percent in 1933, and unemployment falls 21.7 percent from 24.9 percent in 1933

  • Bennett Plans to Change the BNA Act

    Bennett proposes that provinces relinquish their jurisdiction in matters of social problems, noteably old age, illness, minimum wages, working hours and conditions.
  • The "Black Blizzard" Strikes

    A black blizzard swpet acrosss the Prairie provinces and left the farmers and city dwellers covered in dust. The government was forced to spend millions of dollars to help sompensate for the damage left beind.
  • Securities exchange act of 1934

    (US)This act is a law governing the secondary trading of securities e.g. stocks , bonds and debunture. In addition, it is created to provide goverence of securities transaction on the secondary market and regulate the exchanges and broker dealers in order to protect the investing public after the tragedy of the stock market crash
  • Franklin Delano Roosevelt brought the second new deal program and policy through the congress

    It aims to give relief to the unemployed and badly hurt farmers, reform of business and financial parctise and promoting recovery of the economy.
  • Bennett's Government Creates the Bank of Canada

    The Bank of Canada was created to regulate the Monetary Policy and to circulate the amount of money in the economy and the value of that money.
  • Strorm Devastates Alberta Wheat Crop

    Thousands of hectares of a promising crops of wheat were wiped out by a devasting storm is over $ 500, 000 and the crops were ruined which gave promise of fielding in excess of 50 bushel to the hectare.
  • Amelia Earhart

    She was the first person to fly solo across the Pacific Ocean
  • Liberals under Mackenzie King returned to office

  • Food shipments to help starving farmers

  • 3 Jun 1935,The “On to Ottawa Trek” Begins

    On June 3, 1935, the “On to Ottawa Trek” began after growing tensions that amounting between the residents of the federal Unemployment Relief Camps and the Canadian Government. The trek was organized by the Workers' Unity League and led by WUL officer, Arthur "Slim" Evans.1000 strikers participated in the trek, boarding boxcars headed east to Parliament.
  • 14 Jun 1935, The “On to Ottawa Trek” Arrives in Regina

    On June 14-17, 1935, the protesters arrived at Regina, Saskatchewan and were confronted with two federal cabinet ministers. Robert Manion, the leader of the Conservative Party and Robert Weir, the Conservative MP invited eight leaders of the protest to including Arthur “Slim” Evans to Ottawa. The eight leaders were arranged to meet with R. B. Bennett on the condition that the rest of the protestors remain in Regina.
  • 22 Jun 1935, The “On to Ottawa Trek” Arrives at Parliament

    On June 22, 1935, the Ottawa meeting between the protestors participating in the “On to Ottawa Trek” and Canadian Government turned into a shouting match. R. B. Bennett accused the group of being radicals and accused the Trek leader, Arthur "Slim" Evans of being an extortionist. Evans in response, called the Prime Minister a liar before the delegation was escorted out of the building.
  • 26 Jun 1935, The “On to Ottawa Trek” Eight Delegates Return to Regina

    On June 26, 1935, the eight delegates representing the protestors in the “On to Ottawa Trek” arrived back in Regina. Attempts of the Trekkers to leave Regina by car or truck were prevented by RCMP road blocks.
  • 1 Jul 1935, The “On to Ottawa Trek” Ends in Violence

    On July 1, 1935, a public meeting was called in Market Square to inform the public on the pmovement;'s progress 1500 to 2000 people attended the event.
    RCMP riot squads and Regina police were situated around the surrounding area and at 8:17 p.m., the riot began as authorities charged rioters in city's centre. The riot lasted 4 violent hours reuslting in 100 local residents and Trekkers being injured, and 2 people dead.
  • Conference passes the United States Neutrality Act

    Imposed a general embargo on trading in arms and war materials with all parties in a war
  • Increase in Tax Rate

    Very high tax rate in 1936 since with the Great Depression, the Government need to spend a lot of money to cope with the problem and help to rebuild the community and economy. Therefore, they increase the Government tax and the top tax rate has reached 79% while the lowest is 4%.
  • The Government National population grows a recprd 14.1% while only 8.1% in 1935

  • Unemploymet Falls to 16.9% from 20.1% in 1935.

  • Ottawa Government spends $26 million on relief for those in need

  • Prairie farmers lose their farms - blown away from drought conditions

    Drought conditions have caused dry topsoil to blow away, leaving land unable to be farmed.
  • Ottawa Spends $125 million on development and public works projects

    The Ottawa Goverment spent $60 million on development and public works projects, $26 million on relief for those crippled by the depression, and another $39.9 million on loans to the Candaian National Railways. The main thrust of this spending is in Western Canada, where the administration fosters countless resource exploitation projects.
  • Strike for higher wages for auto industry

    March 2, sit-down strike-70 workers from Holmes and Foundry, beaten up by 300 police man and armed citizens, police arrested any strikers that escaped the violence, this strike was for higher wages for the auto industry
  • 1.2 million Canadians were on relief

    March 31, 1.2 Cndns were on relief less 1936,even though there were less people in total but more people from the prairies on relief.
  • 1.2 million Canadians participate in make-work projects

    Government set up make-work projects like working on building roads or highways (TransCanada highway).
  • MPs approve trade deal with Germany

    MPs approve trade deal with Germany-April 8- approved deal despite Adolf Hitler’s Reich, currently Canada imports more from Germany more than they export to Germany, this deal is meant to balance it out
  • Member of UAW walked off their job

    April 8-members of UAW walked off their job, GM people wanted the UAW to be recognized for the rights of negotiating with the company, GM vice president. George Chappell would not sign a contract only agreed verbally, the liberal premier, Mitchell Hepburn wanted to use police to stop strike
  • GM Strike- 15th day strike is over

    April 28, GM strike- 15th day strike is over. Members of United Auto workers, made a deal with GM. They achieved all of their demands: a minimum wage, 1 44-hour work week, a seniority system, establishment of a grievancec procedure and a promise from GM not to discriminate union members.
  • Establishment of Royal Commission on Dominion Provincial Relations (Rowell-Sirois report) to deal with system of government due to Depression

    As a response to financial strains imposed of federal government because of teh Depression, this Commission is established to study the system.
  • Alberta announces new minimum wage

    Alberta had the second highest minimum wages in Canada. Effective October 1st, the new basic rate would be 33.3. cents per hour and $15 per week.
  • Bank of Canada become publicly owned

    It looks after monetary policy
  • American congress passes Fair Labor Standards Act.

    Making the end of the Second New Deal, Congress passes the Fair Labor Standards Act, setting minimum wage and maximum hour regulations. (US)
  • Canada, US and UK sign new trade deal.

    Canada, US, UK sign a new trade deal. American manufactured goods will cost less. Canada will forgo some preferences in British markets and reduce tariffs on some American imported goods. The US will lower tariffs on Canadian goods.
  • Worlds Fair

    The United States also hosted the Worlds Fair in New York early in the year
  • Gross National Product drops

    The gross national product drops 40%
  • Canada begins to become more prosperous

    Canada was in the first prosperity period in the business cycle in a decade
  • Demand for Materials

    A increaced demand in Europe for materials, and increaced spending by the Canadian government was a boost for Canadian ecomomy.
  • One million Canadians are on relief

  • Inuits are called Indians

    The supreme court declared Inuits to be Indians
  • Prairie Farm Assistance Act passed

    This Act offered a type of crop insurance in the event of low prices or low yields in a specific area.
  • Thousands of jobs created by the War

    WWII created jobs in the military and civilian jobs
  • Federal Election

    The federal elections, the Liberals power with 178 seats. The Conservatives stayed at 39, the CCF won 8 and the Social Credit 10. King remained Prime Minister.
  • Rights for Quebec Women

    Quebec women were the last in Canada to eatn the rights to vote and run for office in provintial elections.
  • National Resources Mobilization Act

    Parliment passed the National Resources Mobilization Act, providing for the conscription of able-bodied men for home defense.
  • Unemployment Insurance Act

    The federal Unemployment Insurence Act was given royal assent.