Belief system in which one supreme being is revered as creator and arbiter of all that exists in the universe.
The three main universalizing religions are Christianity, Islam, and Buddhism.
political party was formed by Theodore Roosevelt in an attempt to advance progressive ideas and unseat President William Howard Taft in the election of 1912.
the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.
Warren G. Harding
established the Veteran's Bureau and the Bureau of the Budget
illicit establishment that sells alcoholic beverages. Such establishments came into prominence in the United States during the Prohibition era
were a generation of young Western women in the 1920s who wore short skirts, bobbed their hair, listened to jazz, and flaunted their disdain for what was then considered acceptable behavior.
Rise of jazz music
First popularized by blacks in the south in late-19th century and early-20th century, then transported north, where white jazz bands became more popular; was America's most native music
F. Scott Fitzgerald
American fiction writer, whose works helped to illustrate the flamboyance and excess of the Jazz Age. While he achieved popular success, fame, and fortune in his lifetime, he did not receive much critical acclaim until after his death.
an American journalist, novelist, short-story writer, and noted sportsman
was an expatriate American poet and critic, and a major figure in the early modernist poetry movement
an American novelist, poet, playwright, and art collector. Born in the Allegheny West neighborhood of Pittsburgh, and raised in Oakland, California, Stein moved to Paris in 1903
American novelist, short story writer, playwright, and designer. Wharton drew upon her insider's knowledge of the upper class New York "aristocracy" to realistically portray the lives and morals of the Gilded Age
Louis Daniel Armstrong
was an American trumpeter, composer, vocalist and occasional actor who was one of the most influential figures in jazz.
Jelly Roll Morton
an American ragtime and early jazz pianist, bandleader and composer who started his career in New Orleans, Louisiana.
an American folk and blues musician notable for his strong vocals, virtuosity on the twelve-string guitar, and the folk standards he introduced
an American-born French entertainer, activist, French Resistance agent and freemason. Her career was centered primarily in Europe, mostly in her adopted France
one of the earliest African-American professional blues singers and one of the first generation of blues singers to record.
Impact of cars and gasoline: social
1: Cars became symbol of freedom and respect; 2: Allowed for vacations and new ways to spend leisure time
the policy of protecting the interests of native-born or established inhabitants against those of immigrants.
First legislation passed which restricted the number of immigrants.
This tariff rose the rates on imported goods in the hopes that domestic manufacturing would prosper. This prevented foreign trade, which hampered the economy since Europe could not pay its debts if it could not trade.
Federal Farm Board
Agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture; it offered farmers insurance against loss of crops due to drought; flood; or freeze. It did not guarantee profit or cover losses due to bad farming.
The Great Crash of 1929
during which the stock market dropped violently, losing much of its value and contributing to the start of the Great Depression, was the impetus for a great number of reforms and regulations related to securities trading., Took place on "Black Tuesday," the main cause of the Great Depression
A consumer panic in the stock market on October 29, 1929 that is said to allegedly be the main cause of the Great Depression. This crash continued past the 29th well into November, when the DJIA fell from 381 to 198.7.
The Great Depression
was the worst economic downturn in the history of the industrialized world, lasting from 1929 to 1939.
Stock Market Crash
Prices fell by 40 points. The total losses that day are estimated to be over 20 million. The previous Thursday is when a panic swept through the stock market and people began to sell their stock at an alarming rate.
Expansion of the Federal Farm Board (FFB)
include making loans to farm cooperatives in order to create "stabilization corporations" that would keep agricultural prices up and provide a method of handling excess production.
A balanced federal budget
Instead of increasing taxes to increase revenue, Herbert Hoover felt that cutting taxes would encourage more spending
Impact of airplanes
Increased American freedom; unsafe at first, but regular flights very safe by 1930s and 1940s
Norris-La Guardia Anti-Injunction Act
forced workers to sign promises to not join a union. It also said the federal courts could not hinder strikes, boycotts, or peaceful protesting by unions.
veterans tried to pressure Congress to pay them their retirement bonuses early. Congress considered a bill authorizing immediate assurance of $2.4 billion, but it was not approved.
repeal the 18th Amendment (Prohibition). Congress legalized light beer. Took effect in December 1933. Based on recommendation of the Wickersham Commission that Prohibition had led to a vast increase in crime.
Public Works Administration (PWA)
Created jobs on government projects
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
Provided jobs for single males on conservation projects
Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA)
Helped states to provide aid for the unemployed
Civil Works Administration (CWA)
Provided work in federal jobs
Emergency Banking Relief Act (EBRA)
Roosevelt declared a bank holiday and closed down all the banks to be inspected. Those that were considered stable could reopen while others that were in financial crisis would remained closed or they could obtained loans if necessary
Created the Federal Deposit Insurance Corportation (FDIC), which protected bank deposits up to $5,000, thus reassuring the Americans that their money were safe
National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA)
Provided money to states to create jobs; it was struck down by the Supreme Court as unconstitutional on the ground that it gave legislative powers to the executive branch and that the enforcement of industry codes within states went beyond the federal government's constitutional powers to regulate interstate commerce
National Recovery Administration (NRA)
Establish codes of fair competition
Federal Securities Act
Required corporations to provide complete information of all stock offerings and made them liable for misrepresentations
Share our wealth societies
government could use the tax system to confiscate the surplus riches of the wealthiest americans and distribute these surpluses to the rest of the population
Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
Supervised the stock market and eliminated dishonest practices
economic theory that holds that money lent to banks and businesses will trickle down to consumers
Works Progress Administration (WPA)
Quickly created as many jobs as possible
National Youth Administration (NYA)
Provided job training for unemployed young people and part-time jobs for needy students
Created seven-member board to regulate the nation's money supply and the interest rates on loans
Parts of Oklahoma, Kansas, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas that were hit hard by dry topsoil and high winds that created blinding dust storms
The Grapes of Wrath
The story follows the fortunes of a poor family as they travel from the Dust Bowl region to California. based on the great depression written by John Steinbeck