20th century presidential outline

  • Dingley Tariff

    In 1890 this tariff act redeemed the promises made in the Republican campaign to restore high protective tariffs. The Dingley Tariff replaced the Wilson-Gorman Act of 1894.
  • William McKinley

    William McKinley
    William McKinley (1897-1901) served as president of the U.S. McKinley led the nation to victory in the Spanish-American War, instituted protective tariffs to encourage American industry, and formally placed the nation on the gold standard.
  • America's annexation of Hawaii

    America's annexation of Hawaii in 1898 extended U.S. territory into the Pacific and highlighted resulted from economic integration and the rise of the United States as a Pacific power.
  • Open Door policy

    Open Door policy initiated by the United States (1899, 1900) for the protection of equal privileges among countries trading with China and in support of Chinese territorial and administrative integrity. The statement was issued in the form of circular notes dispatched by U.S. Secretary of State John Hay to Great Britain, Germany, France, Italy, Japan, and Russia.
  • Boxer Rebellion

    The Boxer Rebellion was an uprising in China against foreign influence in religion, politics, and trade. In the fighting, the Boxers killed thousands of Chinese Christians and attempted to storm the foreign embassies in Beijing. The Chinese government was forced to sign the "Boxer Protocol" which called for the rebellion's leaders to be executed and the payment of financial reparations to the injured nations.
  • Big Stick Policy

    Big Stick Policy, in American history, policy popularized and named by Theodore Roosevelt that asserted U.S. domination when such dominance was considered the moral imperative.
  • National Reclamation Act

    1902, Congress enacted the National Reclamation Act to the receipts from the sale and disposal of public lands in certain States and Territories to the construction of irrigation works for the reclamation of arid lands." With this act, Congress intended to harness the intermittent precipitation in seventeen western states and use it to encourage individual families to settle in the West by converting arid federal land into agriculturally productive land.
  • Hay–Bunau-Varilla Treaty

    The Hay–Bunau-Varilla Treaty was a treaty signed on November 18, 1903, by the United States and Panama, that established the Panama Canal Zone and the subsequent construction of the Panama Canal. It was named after its two primary negotiators, Phillipe Bunau-Varilla, the French diplomatic representative of Panama, and United States Secretary of State John Hay.
  • Roosevelt Corollary

    The Roosevelt Corollary is a corollary to the Monroe Doctrine that was articulated by President Theodore Roosevelt in his State of the Union Address in 1904. The corollary states that The United States will intervene in conflicts between European Nations and Latin American countries to enforce legitimate claims of the European powers, rather than having the Europeans press their claims directly.
  • Hepburn Act

    The Hepburn Act is a 1906 United States federal law that gave the Interstate Commerce Commission the power to set maximum railroad rates.
  • Payne-Aldrich Tariff Act

    The Payne-Aldrich Tariff Act of 1909 named for Representative Sereno E. Payne (R-NY) and Senator Nelson W. Aldrich (R-RI), began in the United States House of Representatives as a bill lowering certain tariffs on goods entering the United States.
  • Pinchot–Ballinger controversy

    The Pinchot–Ballinger controversy(1909), also known as the "Ballinger Affair", was a dispute between U.S. Forest Service Chief Gifford Pinchot and U.S. Secretary of the Interior Richard Achilles Ballinger that contributed to the split of the Republican Party before the 1912 Presidential Election and helped to define the U.S. conservation movement in the early 20th century.
  • Trust Buster

    Trust Buster 1911 President Roosevelt did not just focus on conservationism during his presidency. He attacked the trusts guilty of monopolies and set up the necessary reforms that resulted in businesses into accepting government regulation.
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    20th century timeline

  • Underwood-Simmons Tariff Act

    The Underwood-Simmons Tariff Act 1913 enacted an across-the-board reduction in tariffs, making manufacturers more efficient and providing consumers with competitive pricing. To compensate for lost revenue, a rider to the act created a small, graduated income tax
  • Federal Reserve System

    The Federal Reserve System is the central banking system of the United States. It was created on December 23, 1913 with the enactment of the Federal Reserve Act, largely in response to a series of financial panics, particularly a severe panic in 1907.
  • Clayton Antitrust Act

    The Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914 was enacted in the United States to add further substance to the U.S. antitrust law regime by seeking to prevent anticompetitive practices in their incipiency
  • 1914 Military Intervention in Vera Cruz

    The United States occupation of Veracruz, which began with the Battle of Veracruz, lasted for six months and was a response to the Tampico Affair of April 9, 1914. The incident came in the midst of poor diplomatic relations between Mexico and the United States, related to the ongoing Mexican Revolution.
  • Zimmerman Note

    The Zimmermann Telegram was a 1917 diplomatic proposal from the German Empire to Mexico to make war against the United States. The proposal was intercepted by British intelligence. Revelation of the Telegram angered Americans and led in part to a United States declaration of war on Germany in April.
  • Fourteen Points

    Fourteen Points was a speech given by United States President Woodrow Wilson to a joint session of Congress on January 8, 1918. The address was intended to assure the country that the Great War was being fought for a moral cause and for postwar peace in Europe.
  • League of Nations

    The League of Nations was an intergovernmental organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War. It was the first permanent international organization whose principal mission was to maintain world peace. The US Senate led by Henry Cabot Lodge refused to join; fear of losing sovereignty