19th Century Civil Service Policy

  • Jefferson Issues Executive Order

    "The right of any officer to give his vote at elections as a qualified citizen is not meant to be restrained...but it is expected that he will not attempt to influence the votes of others nor take any part in the business of electioneering, that being deemed inconsistent with the spirit of the Constitution and his duties to it."
  • Tenure of Office Act

  • Andrew Jackson Elected to First Term

    • "Turn the rascals out!"
    • Relied heavily on patronage to strengthen his party
    • Political sympathy and partisan activity were required as a condition of appointment
    • Stated that the trained officials in DC constituted a "dangerous bureaucracy"
  • Martin Van Buren Elected

    • Handpicked by President Jackson as his successor
  • Congress passes legislation to create a salary schedule and classification system for federal clerks

  • Tenure of Office Act

    Extended the requirement of Senate concurrence to removal of Cabinet members
  • President Andrew Johnson Impeached

    Andrew Johnson impeached by the House of Representatives for defying the 1867 Tenure of Office Act
  • Joint Select Committee on Retrenchment

    Committee issues report recommending the introduction of competitive examinations
  • Sec. of Interior Jacob D Cox introduces merit system to dept

  • Treasury Sec. George Boutwell set up system of competitive exams for dept

  • Advisory Board on the Civil Service

    Appropriations rider gives President Grant the authority to appoint an Advisory Board on the Civil Service, which issued recommendations for new civil service rules
  • Congress cuts off funds for Advisory Board

  • Rutherford B. Hayes Elected

    Pres. Hayes issues Executive Orders revivin and extending competitive exams and prohibiting political activity by government employees
  • President Garfield assassinated by a disgruntled officeseeker

  • National Civil Service Reform League founded

  • Pendleton Civil Service Act passes

  • Hatch Act passes

  • Civil Service Reform Act