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1960s: A Decade of Hope

  • CORE Founded

    CORE Founded
    The Congress of Racial Equality was an organization that utilized nonviolent forms of protest to bring about their goal of racial equality. The group used demonstrators that were mainly African Americans from the south, where racism was strongest. This group was key in combating the social injustices of descrimination.
  • Policy of "Termination" Begins

    Policy of "Termination" Begins
    Termination was the polilcy of the American Government to end the Native Americans of being wards of the state. This was done by kicking them off of their land and basically forcing them to come to move to the city.
  • Japenese Relinquish Control Of Vietnam

    Japenese Relinquish Control Of Vietnam
    During World War II, Japan took over Vietnam. Nearing Japan's Surrender, Japan returned Frances's former colony back to them. This led into the United State's involvement some time later.
  • Berlin Airlifts

    Berlin Airlifts
    Berlin was an island of freedom in a sea of communism. East Germany, controlled by the Soviet Union, closed off the borders in order for Berlin to become communist. In reply, the United States and its allies sent cargo planes to drop off supplies everyday. In the end, the soviets re-opened the borders, as attemting to starve out innocent civilians was causing them to have an unfavorable reputation on the world stage.
  • French defeat at Dien Bien Phu

    French defeat at Dien Bien Phu
    The Vietnamese defeated the French in a stunning military victory. Surrounded and taking heavy casaulties, the French surrendered. This created a vacuum of power, in which the communist northern government and the oppressive reign of Diem began.
  • Geneva Conference

    Geneva Conference
    During the Geneva Conference it was decided that South Vietnam would hold free elections to decide its future leader and whether it would be united with communist North Vietnam. Diem "won" the free elections with more than 99% of the vote.
  • Briggs v Elliott

    Briggs v Elliott
    Harry and Eliza Briggs's children had to attend a segregated school in South Carolina. They were fed up with the treatment of their children by the community. After the school board refused to bus their kids to school, they filed a legal challenge against segregation of the the local schools. The case was combined with numerous other cases into one, Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas.
  • Diem Takes Control of Vietnam

    Diem Takes Control of Vietnam
    Diem is "elected" leader of Vietnam by free elections. He received about a 100,000 more votes than there were registered voters in one city. From here Diem began oppressing the Bhuddist majority.
  • Montgomery Bus Boycotts

    Montgomery Bus Boycotts
    This event truly sparked the nation-wide protests that led to change. It all started with Rosa Parks refusing to give up her seat to a white passenger on a bus. She was arrested, and the African-Americans of Montgomery began boycotting the buses. Over a year later the bus company was forced by the Supreme Court, who ruled segregation on buses was unconstitutional, to integrate the buses.
  • SCLC Founded

    SCLC Founded
    Leaders who organized the Montgomery bus boycotts and a few other small groups banded together to form the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. The SCLC was formed to organize protest activities.
  • Little Rock Nine

    Little Rock Nine
    The Little Rock Nine were, as the name suggests, nine students who decided to test Arkansas's resolve. They tried to attend an all-white school. At first they were blocked by the Arkansas National Guard. Then, after the governor refused to let the students attend the school, President Eisenhower ordered the 101st Airborne Division to protect the students.
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    1960s: A Divided Decade

  • Bay of Pigs Invasion

    Bay of Pigs Invasion
    An absolute failure ordered by Kennedy. The plan was for bombers to attack, and then a ground assault could begin, performed by Cuban Exiles secretely backed by the U.S. Due to poor planning and the lack of air support, and all the invaders were captured. Kennedy took full responsibilty.
  • Freedom Riders

    Freedom Riders
    CORE began the Freedom Rides, a campaign designed to challenge the segregation of bus stations and open them to all passengers. The Freedom Riders were to drive through the south using the supposedly already desegregated bus stations and truly open them to everyone. They were firebombed and severly beaten in Alabama. The freedom rides ended a failure.
  • Space Race Begins

    Space Race Begins
    The Russians launched a man into space a year before the U.S did. Krushchev used this as propaganda to spread the word that Communism was superior. Many Americans thought that perhaps Russia was more advanced then them, and they were concerned. Then Kennedy announced that before the decade was out we would land a man on the moon.
  • 24th Amendment passed

    24th Amendment passed
    The 24th ammendment banned the poll tax. This prevented poor people, which often included African Americans due to the reduced wages they recieved, from be able to vote.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis

    Cuban Missile Crisis
    After the failed Bay of Pigs invasion, Cuba and the Soviet Union's relationship was strengthened. The Soviet Union ended up placing offensive nuclear missiles in Cuba, aimed at America. Kennedy demanded these missiles be removed from the western hemisphere. In the end, the Soviets backed down, and the nuclear crisis was diverted.
  • Medgar Evers Assassinated

    Medgar Evers Assassinated
    The Head of the NAACP in Mississippi was gunned down in his front yard. He was crucial to the Civil Rights Movement. His killer, a Ku Klux Klan member, was tried twice and let off twice.
  • Coup d'etat, Diem Executed

    Coup d'etat, Diem Executed
    The American-backed Coup proceeded, as it was seen by the U.S. that it would be impossible for the North Viatnamese Army and the Viet Cong to be defeated under the leadership of Diem. After Diem was captured and subsequently executed,
  • Lyndon B. Johnson Sworn In

    Lyndon B. Johnson Sworn In
    Hours after JFK was killed, Johnson was sworn in. He used JFK's death to pursue what he interpreted as what JFK's legacy would be. He also had an agenda of his own to pursue. He ambitiously started up many new-deal style programs.
  • JFK Assassinated

    JFK Assassinated
    President Kennedy was in a motorcade. He was driving past the Texas Schoolbook Depository when shots rang out from the 6th floor of building. Kennedy had been hit in the head and killed. People were shocked and extremely distraught. Lee Harvey Oswald was arrested and convicted for the killing of the deceased president.
  • U.C. Berkley Demonstrations begin

    U.C. Berkley Demonstrations begin
    When a former student set up a collection table in a place where speachmaking and rallying had been forbidden. Hundreds of students surrounded the police car and prevented his arrest. Berkley soon became a hotbed of free speech demonstrations and protests.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964

    Civil Rights Act of 1964
    This law bans descrimination in employment and in public accomodations. It was an important step for President Johnson in regards to civil rights legislation.
  • Tonkin Gulf Resolution

    Tonkin Gulf Resolution
    After approved, the Tonkin Gulf Resolution enabled Johnson to expand the war. This gave the president increased warmaking powers. It later proved that the reason the resolution was passed, the apparent atack on American vessles by North Vietnam, was in fact false.
  • Malcolm X Assassinated

    Malcolm X Assassinated
    Malcolm X was the leader of the Nation of Islam. He was considered to be very radical, he was not always the biggest advocate of nonviolence. Later on he traveled to Mecca and other holy sites in the middle east. He came back a changed man, now a full supporter of nonviolence and cooperation to gain equality.
  • Operation Rolling Thunder Begins

    Operation Rolling Thunder Begins
    Operation thunder was the United States plan to decimate morale and the North Viatnamese's cities. The aggressive bombing campaign was only supposed to last 8 weeks, but ended up lasting years. Overall the continuous bombing was a failure becuase it did not disrupt the enemy as it was supposed to.
  • Johnson signs Medicaid and Medicare into Law

    Johnson signs Medicaid and Medicare into Law
    Johnson was very ambitous, he wanted to pass many social reforms. The most prominent of his social legislation would be medicare and medicaid which are still with us today. These programs gave much needed aid to the elderly who had trouble affording medical care.
  • NOW (National Organization for Women) Founded

    NOW (National Organization for Women) Founded
    Formed by a group of feminists, the National Organization for Women combatted descrimination in buisinesses, education, and the justice system. They went about attempting to accomplish these goals by using nonviolent protests and filing lawsuits.
  • Black Panther Party Founded

    Black Panther Party Founded
    Founded in Oakland, the Black Panther Party called for a violent revolution to accomplish its goal of African American to be equal in the eyes of society. They often carried weapons and policed their communities to try to prevent unfair treatment.
  • Poor People's Campaign

    Poor People's Campaign
    The Poor People's campaign was designed to bring the Struggle of the poor to legislators in Washington and also to publicize the inequality of their wages to the country. They camped out in Washington D.C, marching past Federal Buildings. In the end the Poor People's Campaign was a failure because they did not express their demands clearly and some even beleived they saw elements of communism in the group.
  • MAYO Founded

    MAYO Founded
    Mexican American Youth Organization. They wanted to create a third political party, local control over the education of hispanic control, and to gain economical independence. School walkouts and mass demonstrations were some of the strategies that were utilized.
  • Tet Offensive

    Tet Offensive
    A massive coordinated atack by the North Viatnamese and Vietcong. The attacks were spread out to about 100 cities and included the U.S. Ebassy in Saigon. After the initial surprise, the opposition was beat back and they suffered heavy causulties. 45,000 NVA and Vietcong were killed, while only 1,100 Americans and 2,300 ARVN died. An important victory for the U.S, it was not portrayed that way by the American media. U.S. citizens were dismayed that such a coordinated attack could be launched.
  • Martin Luther King Jr. Assassinated

    Martin Luther King Jr. Assassinated
    King was about to leave his hotel in Memphis. When he stepped out onto the balcony, he was shot by James Earl Ray whith a sniper rifle. Hours later, their were riots in cities across the nation. African Americans were extremely angry, which is understandable, seeing as King was the most loved and most effective leader of the civil rights movement.
  • Nixon Sworn In

    Nixon Sworn In
    Nixon was chosen as president in 1968, after a race between 3 candidates. In the end Nixon and his plan for vietnam, "Peace with Honor", won out. Nixon was said to have been the worst choice for such a divided nation. Nixon widened the rift in the nation that had already formed. He accomplished a considerable amount, yet he still left office in utter shame.
  • Woodstock

    Woodstock was a symbol of a culture that existed in the 60s and early 70s. Woodstock was a huge festival that included bands of the era, drugs, and free love. The festival lasted 5 days.
  • Vietnam Draft Begins

    Vietnam Draft Begins
    The draft was a hated symbol of an era. It was used to force those who did not want to fight in a war that it seemed was less and less winnable. The draft also was skewed in favor of those with more money. If you did not want to go to go to Vietnam, you simply went to college. African Americans were more often in Vietnam than Whites because of the African Americans unfair wages.
  • La Raza Unida Party

    La Raza Unida Party
    The La Raza Unida Party wanted bilingual education, improved public services, education for children of migrant workers, and an end to job descrimination for Chicanos. Chicanos is a shortened term for mexicanos. This word had been used negatively until it was decided to use Chicano as a source of pride.
  • Roe v Wade

    Roe v Wade
    Roe v Wade is still one of the most controversial decisions of the Supreme court. It stated that women had the right to have an abortion up to a certain point in a pregnancy. Abortion is still a topic that appears in many presidential debates.
  • U.S. Peace Agreement with Vietnam Signed

    U.S. Peace Agreement with Vietnam Signed
    Secretary of State Henry Kissinger signed the peace agreement after over ten years of U.S. involvement in Vietnam. This was in part possible because of Nixon's brilliant strategy. He visited China, then Russia. This helped lead to the peace agreement.
  • Wounded Knee Occupation

    Wounded Knee Occupation
    AIM (American Indian Movement) members took over the Pine Ridge Reservation demanding that the tribal government be investigated for corruption and misconduct at the Bureau of Indian Affairs. After a brief conflict the government agree to consider their grievances, but they did not.
  • War Powers Act of 1973

    War Powers Act of 1973
    The law limits the predsidents powers to declare war without the consent of congress. The president must notify congress of deployment within 48 hours and the troops must withdraw within 60 days.
  • ERA fails to become law

    ERA fails to become law
    The Equal Rights Ammendment proposed that that women and men would be equal in all sectors of life. Opponents argued that women and men would have to share public restrooms, and women could be drafted into the military.It had to be ratified by at least 38 states, and it ended up being 3 states short.