1954-1975 Timeline APUSH by chris0024

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    1954-1975

  • Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka

    Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
    Kennedy, David., et al. The American Pageant. Thirteenth edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006.
    A team of NAACP lawyers, headed by Thurgood Marshall, argued that the segregation of black children in public schools was unconstitutional because it violated the 14th Amendment's guarantee of "equal protection of the laws." The Supreme Court agreed with Marshall and overturned the Plessy case. Chief Justice, Earl Warren, ruled "separate but equal" as unconstitutional for school segregation
  • Montgomery Bus Boycott

    Montgomery Bus Boycott
    <a href='' >Kennedy, David., et al. The American Pageant. Thirteenth edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006</a> In Montgomery, Alabama, Rosa Parks refused to give up her bus seat to a white man and move to the back section os the bus. She was arrested for violating the segregation law. Her action sparked a massive African American movement in Alabama. A 13 month bus boycott caused the Supreme Court to rule segregation laws as unconstitutional in1956.
  • Election of 1956

    Election of 1956
    <a href='' >http://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/all_about_ike/presidential/1956_campaign.html</a><a href='' Eisenhower was very popular after ending the Korean War. When the 1956 election was held, Eisenhower won in a landslide against Democratic presidential candidate Stevenson. In both of his presidential terms, he mainly focused on foreign policy and international crises that were arising from the Cold War.
  • Eisenhower Doctrine

    Eisenhower Doctrine
    [Eisenhower photo](' >Newman, John J., and John M. Schmalbach. United States History: Preparing for the Advanced Placement Examination. New York, NY: Amsco School Publications, 1998. Print.</a> <a href='http://www.history.com/topics/eisenhower-doctrine) In 1957, Eisenhower and Congress proclaimed the Eisenhower Doctrine. In this doctrine, the United States pledged eoonomic and military aid, supporting any Middle Eastern counrty that was resisting the rise of communism. In 1958, Eisenhower first applied this policy in Lebanon by sending 14,000 marines to prevent the outbreak of a civil war between Christians and Muslims.
  • Formation of SCLC

    Formation of SCLC
    <a href='' >Newman, John J., and John M. Schmalbach. United States History: Preparing for the Advanced Placement Examination. New York, NY: Amsco School Publications, 1998. Print.</a>
    Martin Luther King, Jr. organized the Southern Christian Leadership Conference in the fight for civil rights. Ministers and churches were involved in this nonviolent protest.
  • Little Rock Nine

    Little Rock Nine
    <a href='' >http://www.arkansas.com/central-high/history/default.asp</a> Protected by U.S. troops, the Little Rock Nine are able to enter the front entrance of the all-white Central High School. Angry and prejudice mobs harrass the Little Rock Nine. The event is nationally publicized.
  • OPEC and Oil

    OPEC and Oil
    <a href='' >Newman, John J., and John M. Schmalbach. United States History: Preparing for the Advanced Placement Examination. New York, NY: Amsco School Publications, 1998. Print.</a> http://www.opec.org/opec_web/en/abo During Eisenhower's last term, the nations of Arabia, Kuwait, Iraq, and Iran joined Venezuela to form the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). This issue of oil was forming to be a critical foreign policy issue. Americans were becoming more reliant on oil in the Middle East and would cause troubel for future presidents. The spread of Arab nationalism and a conflict between Palestinian refugees would also heighten tensions and trouble.
  • Kennedy Elected President for 1960 Election

    Kennedy Elected President for 1960 Election
    <a href='' >Kennedy, David., et al. The American Pageant. Thirteenth edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006</a> For the presidential election of 1960, the Democrats nominated John F. Kennedy. He was from Massachusetts and was Roman Catholic. In this election, television appeared to be the new medium; those who listened to the debates on the radio felt that Nixon had won, but those who viewed the debates on television felt that Kennedy won. Kennedy was the 35th president elected.
  • Bay of Pigs Invasion

    Bay of Pigs Invasion
    <a href='' >Kennedy, David., et al. The American Pageant. Thirteenth edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006</a> Early in his term, Kennedy gave the approval for the CIA to use Cuban exiles to overthrown Castro's regime in Cuba. The cuban exiles were not successful. Kennedy rejected the idea of using U.S. forces to save them. Castro used the failed invasion to get more support from the Soviet Union. U.S. took 100% responsibility for the defeat and thus, earned the trust of the nation.
  • Cuban Missle Crisis

    Cuban Missle Crisis
    <a href='' >Kennedy, David., et al. The American Pageant. Thirteenth edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006</a> The U.S. discovered that the Soviets were in the process of placing missles in Cuba-- a potential offensive for nuclear war. Tensions mounted as Kennedy announced that he was setting up a naval blockade until weapons were removed. Khrushchev finally agreed to remove missles from Cuba if Kennedy agreed not to invade Cuba. This agreement eased tensions between the two nations.
  • March on Washington

    March on Washington
    <a href='' >Newman, John J., and John M. Schmalbach. United States History: Preparing for the Advanced Placement Examination. New York, NY: Amsco School Publications, 1998. Print.</a>
    Martin Luther KIng led one of the most successful marches in U.S. history. About 200,000 people took part in this peaceful demonstration in support of the civil rights bill. King delivered his "I Have a Dream" speech.
  • Kennedy Assassinated

    Kennedy Assassinated
    <a href='' >Kennedy, David., et al. The American Pageant. Thirteenth edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006</a> In Dallas, Texas, Kennedy was assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald. Kennedy's murder stunned and shocked many Americans. Conspiracy theories emerged, arousing suspicion of the CIA, FBI, and organized crime. Many Americans also started to feel a loss of credibility in government. His death was truly a tragedy for the American people because of his progression in leadership.
  • Lyndon B. Johnson

    Lyndon B. Johnson
    <a href='' >Kennedy, David., et al. The American Pageant. Thirteenth edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006</a> Lyndon B. Johnson was sworn into office just hours after Kennedy's assassination. He was experienced in politics and was able to later persuade Congress to pass an extended version of Kennedy's Civil Rights Bill. He wanted to dedicate and honor Kennedy's legacy. He wanted be one of the greatest presidents and created many programs for cvil rights and poverty.
  • Johnson Declares an Unconditional War on Poverty

    Johnson Declares an Unconditional War on Poverty
    <a href='' >Kennedy, David., et al. The American Pageant. Thirteenth edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006</a>
    Michael Harrington's book on poverty brought national attention to the 40 million Americans living in poverty. Congress created the Office of Economic Employment (OEO) and provided it with a billion-dollar budget. Self-help programs for the poor, like Head Start and Job Corps, were created.The War on Poverty helped to significantly reduce the number of families in poverty.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964

    Civil Rights Act of 1964
    <a href='' >Newman, John J., and John M. Schmalbach. United States History: Preparing for the Advanced Placement Examination. New York, NY: Amsco School Publications, 1998. Print.</a>
    Johnson managed to persuade Congress to pass the 1964 Civil Rights Act, which made segregation illegal in public facillities and gave the government power to enforce school desegregation. Also, it set up the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission to end radical discrimination in employment.
  • Tonkin Gulf Resolution

    Tonkin Gulf Resolution
    Newman, John J., and John M. Schmalbach. United States History: Preparing for the Advanced Placement Examination. New York, NY: Amsco School Publications, 1998. Print.
    Johnson used a naval incident in the Gulf of Tonkin to persuade authorization from Congress for U.S. military response. Allegedly, North Vietnamese gunboats had fired on U.S. warships. Congress voted approval of this Resolution, giving Johnson a "blank check" to do what was necessary to protect U.S. interests.
  • Free Speech Movement

    Free Speech Movement
    <a href='' >Kennedy, David., et al. The American Pageant. Thirteenth edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006</a> http://www.uic.edu/orgs/cwluherstory/jofreeman/sixtiesprotest/berkeley.htm The first major student protest took place in the fall on 1964 on the campus of Berkeley-- the Free Speech Movement. The students demanded an end to university restrictions and the demonstrations escalated with involvement in Vietnam war. Campuses were disrupted or closed due to anti-war protests
  • Malcom X Assassinated

    Malcom X Assassinated
    <a href='' >Newman, John J., and John M. Schmalbach. United States History: Preparing for the Advanced Placement Examination. New York, NY: Amsco School Publications, 1998. Print.</a>
    The Black Muslim leader Malcom X preached black nationalism, separatism, self-defense, and self-improvement. He did advocate nonviolence, but he advocated black violence to counter white violence. He was assassinated by black opponents in 1965. He was a major leader of this time.
  • Operation Rolling Thunder

    Operation Rolling Thunder
    <a href='' >Newman, John J., and John M. Schmalbach. United States History: Preparing for the Advanced Placement Examination. New York, NY: Amsco School Publications, 1998. Print.</a>
    Johnson authorized Operation Rolling Thunder, which was an air attack that used B-52 bombers against North Vietnam. This offensive strategy was in response to the the Vietcong attack on a U.S. base in Plieku.
  • March on Selma and Passage of Voting Rights Act of 1965

    March on Selma and Passage of Voting Rights Act of 1965
    <a href='' >Newman, John J., and John M. Schmalbach. United States History: Preparing for the Advanced Placement Examination. New York, NY: Amsco School Publications, 1998. Print.</a>
    The brutality on the voting rights marches, led by Martin Luther King, moved Congress to pass the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which ended literacy tests.
  • March to Montgomery (from Selma)

    March to Montgomery (from Selma)
    <a href='' >Newman, John J., and John M. Schmalbach. United States History: Preparing for the Advanced Placement Examination. New York, NY: Amsco School Publications, 1998. Print.</a> The voting rights march to Montgomery was met with police beatings. Johnson sent troops to protect King and the demonstrators. The movement of civil rights was beginning to change because the African American people were getting tired of waiting for equality and tired of the violence on their people.
  • Tet Offensive

    Tet Offensive
    <a href='' >Newman, John J., and John M. Schmalbach. United States History: Preparing for the Advanced Placement Examination. New York, NY: Amsco School Publications, 1998. Print.</a>
    Even though the U.S. military counteracted the North Vietnamese offensive and the Vietcong suffered heavier losses; for the Vietcong and North Vietnamese, this was a political victory in demoralizing the American public.
  • Race Riots

    Race Riots
    Newman, John J., and John M. Schmalbach. United States History: Preparing for the Advanced Placement Examination. New York, NY: Amsco School Publications, 1998. Print.
    The Kerner Commission concluded that racism and segregation were chiefly responsible for the U.S. becoming "two societes, one black, one white--separate and unequal." When 34 people died and more than 700 buildings were destroyed in Watt Section of LA, it was apparent tha de facto segregation was the eminent form of discimination.
  • Lyndon B. Johnson Withdraws

    Lyndon B. Johnson Withdraws
    <a href='' >Kennedy, David., et al. The American Pageant. Thirteenth edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006</a> President Johnson went on national T.V. and told the AMerican people that he would limit the bombing of North Vietnam and negotiate peace. The U.S. would become even less involved in an offensive war with Vietnam. After peace negotiations were held (although deadlocked), the escalation of U.S. troops declined. Then, Johnson announced that he would not run for another term,
  • Martin Luther King, Jr. Assassinated

    Martin Luther King, Jr. Assassinated
    <a href='' >Kennedy, David., et al. The American Pageant. Thirteenth edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006</a> King was killed on a motel balcony in Memphis, Tennessee by a white man. Massive riots broke out over his death. The violence showed the frustration, anger, and saddness that his followers felt. King also received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964.
  • Riots at Democratic Convention in Chicago

    Riots at Democratic Convention in Chicago
    Newman, John J., and John M. Schmalbach. United States History: Preparing for the Advanced Placement Examination. New York, NY: Amsco School Publications, 1998. Print.
    The Democrats met in Chicago for their party convention. Humphrey had enough delegates to win the nomination. However, anti-war demonstrators had opposite feelings. The Chicago mayor, Daley, had the police out in mass and the violence was televised as a "police riot." Humphrey was an underdog in a nation tired of chaotic protest
  • Election of 1968

    Election of 1968
    <a href='' >Kennedy, David., et al. The American Pageant. Thirteenth edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006</a>
    Richard Nixon won the 1968 presidential election. He defeated Humphrey and took a majority of the electoral vote. His election was significant in showing that many Americans were sick of the upheavals of the sixties, such as protest, violence, counterculture, and drugs. One of his objectives was to find a way to reduce U.S. involvement in Vietnam and avoid conceding defeat.
  • Nixon Orders American Forces Without Consulting Congress

    Nixon Orders American Forces Without Consulting Congress
    <a href='' >Kennedy, David., et al. The American Pageant. Thirteenth edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006</a> Nixon ordered American forces to support the South Vietnamese in attempt to push the North Vietnamese out of neutral Cambodia.
  • Watergate

    Watergate
    <a href='' >Kennedy, David., et al. The American Pageant. Thirteenth edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006</a>
    Nixon's reelection committee hired a group of men to break into the offices of the Democrats national headquarters at Watergate. A security guard discovered tape on the door to prevent locking, and the scandal was revealed. Nixon tried to cover up the scandal, but this was an obstruction of justice. Impeachment was advised.
  • The Paris Peace Accords

    The Paris Peace Accords
    <a href='' >Newman, John J., and John M. Schmalbach. United States History: Preparing for the Advanced Placement Examination. New York, NY: Amsco School Publications, 1998. Print.</a>
    The Paris Peace Accords of January 1973 promised did not end the Vietnam War between the North and the South, but allowed U.S. troops to withdraw from Vietnam and get back over 500 prisoners of war. This armistice allowed the U.S. to extricate itself from the war.
  • War Powers Act

    War Powers Act
    <a href='' >Kennedy, David., et al. The American Pageant. Thirteenth edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006</a> In1973, Congress passed the War Powers Act, requiring future presidents to report to Congress within 48 hours after taking military action and requiring Congress to approve any military action that lasted for more than 60 days.
  • Nixon Resigns

    Nixon Resigns
    <a href='' >Kennedy, David., et al. The American Pageant. Thirteenth edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2006</a> NIxon chose to resign on this date. He appointed his vice president Gerald Ford. He avoided impeachment and trials in the Senate.
  • Ford Takes Oath of Office

    Ford Takes Oath of Office
    Newman, John J., and John M. Schmalbach. United States History: Preparing for the Advanced Placement Examination. New York, NY: Amsco School Publications, 1998. Print. After Nixon resigned, Ford was appointed president. He was the first unelected president in history. Beginning his term, he pardoned Nixon to relieve the nation of stress and to end the "national nightmare."
  • Domestic Matters in Ford's Presidency

    Domestic Matters in Ford's Presidency
    <a href='' >Newman, John J., and John M. Schmalbach. United States History: Preparing for the Advanced Placement Examination. New York, NY: Amsco School Publications, 1998. Print.</a> One of Ford's main concerns was to bring inflation under control. Ford encourage voluntary measures of businesses and consumers; and urged the people to wear WIN buttons. Inflation continued and unemployment increased. Then, Ford agreed to a Democratic package to stimulate the economy.
  • Investigation of the CIA

    Investigation of the CIA
    <a href='' >Newman, John J., and John M. Schmalbach. United States History: Preparing for the Advanced Placement Examination. New York, NY: Amsco School Publications, 1998. Print.</a> During For'd presidency, Congress continued to investigate the executive branch,especially the CIA. The CIA was accused of the assassination of foreign leaders. Ford appointed George H. Bush to reform the agency.