Chrysta Castelucci- FAMOUS “WARREN COURT” LEGAL DECISIONS (1957-1968)

  • • Roth v. United States, 1957

    •	Roth v. United States, 1957
    along with its companion case, Alberts v. California, was a landmark case before the United States Supreme Court which redefined the Constitutional test for determining what constitutes obscene material unprotected by the First Amendment.
  • • Mapp v. Ohio, 1961

    •	Mapp v. Ohio, 1961
    was a landmark case in criminal procedure, in which the United States Supreme Court decided that evidence obtained in violation of the Fourth Amendment, which protects against "unreasonable searches and seizures," may not be used in criminal prosecutions in state courts, as well as federal courts.
  • Baker v. Carr, 1962

    	Baker v. Carr, 1962
    was a landmark United States Supreme Court case that retreated from the Court's political question doctrine, deciding that reapportionment (attempts to change the way voting districts are delineated) issues present justiciable questions, thus enabling federal courts to intervene in and to decide reapportionment cases. The defendants unsuccessfully argued that reapportionment of legislative districts is a "political question," and hence not a question that may be resolved by federal courts.
  • • Engel v. Vitale, 1962

    •	Engel v. Vitale, 1962
    was a landmark United States Supreme Court case that determined that it is unconstitutional for state officials to compose an official school prayer and require its recitation in public schools.
  • • Escobedo v. Illinois, 1964

    •	Escobedo v. Illinois, 1964
    was a United States Supreme Court case holding that criminal suspects have a right to counsel during police interrogations under the Sixth Amendment. The case was decided a year after the court held in Gideon v. Wainwright, 372 U.S. 335 (1963) that indigent criminal defendants had a right to be provided counsel at trial.
  • • Reynolds v. Sims, 1964

    •	Reynolds v. Sims, 1964
    was a United States Supreme Court case that ruled that state legislature districts had to be roughly equal in population. Voters from Jefferson County, Alabama, had challenged the apportionment of the Alabama Legislature. The Alabama Constitution provided that there be at least one representative per county and as many senatorial districts as there were senators. Ratio variances as great as 41 to 1 from one senatorial district to another existed in the Alabama Senate (i.e., the number of eligi
  • • Griswold v. Connecticut, 1965

    •	Griswold v. Connecticut, 1965
    was a landmark case in which the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that the Constitution protected a right to privacy. The case involved a Connecticut law that prohibited the use of contraceptives. By a vote of 7–2, the Supreme Court invalidated the law on the grounds that it violated the "right to marital privacy".
  • • Miranda v. Arizona, 1966

    •	Miranda v. Arizona, 1966
    was a landmark 5–4 decision of the United States Supreme Court. The Court held that both inculpatory and exculpatory statements made in response to interrogation by a defendant in police custody will be admissible at trial only if the prosecution can show that the defendant was informed of the right to consult with an attorney before and during questioning and of the right against self-incrimination prior to questioning by police, and that the defendant not only understood these rights, but volu
  • • Gideon v. Wainwright, 1963

    •	Gideon v. Wainwright, 1963
    is a landmark case in United States Supreme Court history. In the case, the Supreme Court unanimously ruled that state courts are required under the Sixth Amendment of the Constitution to provide counsel in criminal cases for defendants who are unable to afford their own attorneys.