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1920-1929 The Roaring 20s, Boom and Bust

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  • 18th Amendment

    18th Amendment
    On this day, the 18th Ammendment and the Volstead Act came into effect. The Amendment banned the selling, maufacturing, or transportation of alcoholic beverages in the United States. The temperance movement had an intital victory by creating a federal law, but more Americans ended up drinking alcohol during the roaring 20's. Prohibition led to an increase in violence and organized crime because of the public demand for illegal alcohol.
  • Matewan, West Virginia

    Matewan, West Virginia
    Although wages increased during the 1920's, union membership decreased. Most union efforts tended to fail during the 1920's because the government favored big businesses. The United Mine Workers were led by John L. Lewis and suffered setbacks through many unsuccesful strikes. 12 miners were killed in the strike in Matewan, West Virginia.
  • Nineteenth Amendment

    Nineteenth Amendment
    The 19th Amendment was ratified on August 20, 1920. The amendment prohibits any U.S. citizen from being denied the right to vote based on gender, and gave women the right to vote most importantly. This amendment helped secure a greater sense of equality for women, and reflected the changing view of American's about women's role in society. It was contributed to the creation of the "New Women."
  • Election of 1920

    Election of 1920
    In the 1920 Presidential Election, the Republican candidate Warren G. Harding defeated the Democratic candidate James Cox. Harding campaigned on the idea of America "returning to normalcy." His election makred the end of the progressive era. Harding's presidency was marked by corruption and scandal. Harding died in 1923 and Vice President Calvin Coolidge became President.
  • Washington Conference

    Washington Conference
    The Washington Conference was a conference organized by the U.S to encourage disarmament around the world. The conference was considered a success and three major disarmament treaties were signed by the world's super powers. This showed that the U.S. was not only pursuing the foreign policy of isolationism.
  • Sheppard-Towner Act

    Sheppard-Towner Act
    The Sheppard-Towner Act extended federal assistance to states hoping to lower infant mortality rates. The act was a significant legislative success for women during the 1920s and marked th peak of women's influence in politics during the decade. The law was promoted by progressives and feminists and was attacked as socialistic by the Supreme Court.
  • Adkins v. Children's Hospital

    Adkins v. Children's Hospital
    In the Supreme Court Case, D.C's minimum wage law for women was declared unconstitutional on the grounds that the law interfered with the freedom of employer and employee to form labor contracts. There was no minimum wage law at the time for men, and the Supreme Court's ruling suggested that women had more civil liberties now.
  • Marcus Garvey Convicted

    Marcus Garvey Convicted
    Marcus Garvey was an extremely influential African American during the early 1920's. Garvey promoted sepratisim, economic self-sufficiency, racial pride, and a the Back to Africa movement. Garvey was convicted of fraud in 1923, and his movement suffered a major setback. Garvey's ideology was later used in the 1960's to inspire African Americans to embrace the cause of black pride and nationalism.
  • Aimee Semple McPherson's First Broadcast

    Aimee Semple McPherson's First Broadcast
    Aimee Semple McPherson founded the Foursquare Church in California and pioneered the use of mass media to promote religion. McPherson used new technology like the radio to communicate her ideology to the masses. McPherson preached a conservative ideology, while using new inovations to reach a larger audience.
  • Johnson-Reid Act

    Johnson-Reid Act
    The Johnson-Reid Act limited the number of immigrants to 161,000 a year and gave a quota for each European country. The quota was based on 2 percent of the number of people from that country in the U.S in 1890. The act reflected growing fear in the U.S, which fueled antiimmigration legislation. The act limited some nations far more than others, as the quotas were manipulated to ensure entry only to "good" immigrants. The immigrant restriction signified the end of America as the land of promise.
  • Dawes Plan

    Dawes Plan
    Charles Daws was an American banker who created a plan help all the countries involved in World War I pay off their debt. America invested in Germany, which allowed Germany to pay off debt to France and Britain. In turn, Great Britain and France were able to pay off their debt to the U.S. The plan worked successfully until the Stock Market crash in 1929.
  • Election of 1924

    Election of 1924
    Calvin Coolidge, the Republican candidate, defeated John W. Davis, the Democratic candidate in the 1924 Presidential election. Coolidge believed in Laissez-Faire government and did little during his time in the White House. Coolidge did closely watch the budget and vetoed many acts that involved spending including a bill supporting bonuses for World War I veterans.
  • Scopes Trial

    Scopes Trial
    In 1925, the state of Tennesse passed a law that made it illegal to teach Darwin's theories of evolution. John Scopes was a biology teacher, who ignored the law and taught the theories of evolution to his students. He was brought to court and forced to pay a fine. The ruling was a continuation of conservatice policies during the 1920's
  • The Great Gatsby

    The Great Gatsby
    Many novels written during the 1920's commented on the flaws with American society and it's ideology. F. Scott Fitzgerald wrote the Great Gatsby to show the corrupiton and greed of American society during this time period. The book, like many others, were written by authors who were critical of the materialist direction America was taking.
  • Talking Pictures

    Talking Pictures
    The creation of talking picture allowed the film industry to reach new heights. Large movie theaters or "palaces" were created and they allowed audiences to have a greater movie experience. Movie stars were now idolized and going to the movies became an American habit. This is an example of the new forms of entertainment available, which helped create a unique American culture.
  • Charles Lindbergh's Flight

    Charles Lindbergh's Flight
    On May 20, 1927, Charles Lindbergh became the first person to fly nonstop across the Atlantic Ocean in his plane, The Spirit of St. Louis. He epitomized the perfect hero of an era that celebrated individual accomplishment. Newspapers nicknamed him the "Lone Eagle." The hero worship of the 1920s reached its peak during the celebration of Lindbergh's accomplishment.
  • Sacco and Vanzetti Trial

    Sacco and Vanzetti Trial
    In 1920, anarchist immigrants from Italy, Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were arrested for obbery and murder. They were given a death sentence and referred to as "anarchist bastards." Many people mourned their deaths, covinced that the two men died for being radicals and immigrants, not murderers. The trial displayed the anti-foreign sentiment among Americans and the judicial system, and shed light on the ignorance of the American public in relation to the importance of immigrants.
  • Kellog-Briand Pact

    Kellog-Briand Pact
    The Kellog-Briand Pact was created by U.S. Secretary of State Frank Kelogg and French foreign minister Aristide Briand. The pact renounced the use of aggressive force to achieve national ends. The pact was ultimatly unsuccessful because it permitted defensive wars and failed to provide for taking action against violators of the agreement.
  • Election of 1928

    Election of 1928
    Coolidge declined to run again, so the Republicans chose Herbert Hoover to run against the democratic candidate Alfred E. Smith. Hoover promised to end poverty and continue "Coolidge Prosperity", while Smith appealed to immigrants and opponents of prohibition. Hoover won in a landslide and recieved support from all over the country.
  • Black Tuesday

    Black Tuesday
    On Black Tuesday, investors were worried about the status of the stockmarket. Eventually, millions of investors sold their shares, which spawned new economic problems. These economic problems would eventually lead to the great depression. The collapse of Wall Street signified the end of the roaring twenties, and began the greatest downturn in the American economy to date.