Major Innovations in the History of Biotechnology

Timeline created by niceagle11
  • Invention of the Microscope

    Invention of the Microscope
    Robert Hooke coined the term "cells" and Anton Van Leeuwenhoek observed the first microorganisms due to the invention of the microscope
  • Discovery of inheritance in plants

    Discovery of inheritance in plants
    Gregor Mendel discoverd the simple laws of inheritance of traits that allowd one to predict the outcome of crosses with certain traits in plants
  • Fermentation, Microbiology, and Germ Theory

    Fermentation, Microbiology, and Germ Theory
    Louis Pasteur described the scientific basis for fermentation, wine making, and the brewing of beer, established the science of microbiology, and proposed the Germ Theory, claiming that microorganisms were responsible for infectious diseases.
  • Discovered DNA might be inheritable

    Discovered DNA might be inheritable
    Johann Miescher found nucleic acid in white blood cells from pus in bandages. This later led scientists to believe DNA might be the inheritable material of an organism.
  • Discovered genes are chromosomes

    Discovered genes are chromosomes
    Studying fruit flies, Thomas Hunt Morgan discovered that genes were on chromosomes.
  • Genetics could be moved from one strain to another

    Genetics could be moved from one strain to another
    Fred Griffith, using mice, provided that genetic material could be moved from one strain of bacteria to another.
  • Isolated penicillin to develop drug ideas

    Isolated penicillin to develop drug ideas
    Sir Alexander Fleming isolated penicillin from a fungus. Many of his ideas are used to develop biotechnology drugs today
  • A=T, C=G

    A=T, C=G
    Chargaff showed that in DNA the number of units of adenine equaled those of thymine and the number of units of cytosine equaled those of guanine.
  • One gene produces one enzyme hypothesis

    One gene produces one enzyme hypothesis
    Beadle and Tatum proposed the "one gene produces one enzyme" hypothesis
  • esablished completely that DNA was hereditary

    esablished completely that DNA was hereditary
    Avery,McCarty, and McLeod established that indeed DNA was the hereditary material that was transformed.
  • Viruses replicate using DNA

    Viruses replicate using DNA
    Using the famous "blender experiment," Hershey and Chase proved viruses replicated using DNA and confirmed the role of DNA as the hereditary material.
  • DNA is double helix

    DNA is double helix
    Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins established through x-ray crystallography that DNA was indeed a double helix.
  • Structure of DNA

    Structure of DNA
    Watson and Crick discovered the structure of DNA
  • Discovered circular DNA

    Discovered circular DNA
    Hayes discovered plasmid DNA, circular pieces of DNA found in bacteria
  • Mechanism of gene expression

    Mechanism of gene expression
    Walter Gilbert discovered the mechanism of gene expression through his study of messenger RNA.
  • Bacterial restriction enzymes cut DNA

    Bacterial restriction enzymes cut DNA
    Arber, Nathans, and Smith discovered bacterial restriction enzymes that cut DNA
  • Discovered 64 codons

    Discovered 64 codons
    Khorana and Nirenberg discovered the 64 codons (the triplet code of 3 bases in DNA) that code for the 20 amino acids making up proteins
  • DNA plasmids were isolated

    DNA plasmids were isolated
    DNA plasmids were isolated and purified by Vinograd.
  • First transformation of Escherichia coli

    First transformation of Escherichia coli
    Madel and Higa were responsible for the first transformation of the bacterium Escherichia coli.
  • Cloning experiments were conducted

    Cloning experiments were conducted
    Cloning experiments were conducted by Boyer and Cohen.
  • Genetech was founded

    Genetech was founded
    Genentech, the world's first genetic engineering company, was founded.
  • Guidelines for work with recombinant DNA

    Guidelines for work with recombinant DNA
    140 scientists met to draw up guidelines for work with recombinant DNA in microorganisms. Paul Berg was a knew organizer.
  • Found a way to sequence DNA

    Found a way to sequence DNA
    Sanger and Gilbert found a way to sequence DNA. Given an unknown piece of DNA, they were able to read the correct order of bases of adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine.
  • Synthetic insulin into E. Coli

    Synthetic insulin into E. Coli
    Boyer inserted a synthetic insulin gene into E. Coli
  • Fingerprints were identified by DNA

    Fingerprints were identified by DNA
    Botstein found that one could be identified by the pattern make of one's DNA through a digest by different enzymes. This DNA fingerprint was called a Restriction Fragment Lenght Polymorphism (RFLP)
  • First baby from vitro fertilization

    First baby from vitro fertilization
    Louise Joy Brown was born, the first human baby resulting from in vitro fertilization, in which sperm and egg are joined in a petri dish. The fertilized egg is later implanted in a womb.
  • Court ruled genetically altered life forms can be patented

    Court ruled genetically altered life forms can be patented
    The U.S Supreme Court ruled that genetically altered life forms can be patented. This resulted in a huge startup of biotech companies.
  • First transgenic animals

    First transgenic animals
    Ohio University scientists made the first transgenic animals.
  • Place a human insulin gene inside bacteria

    Place a human insulin gene inside bacteria
    Eli Lilly Company placed a human insulin gene inside bacteria
  • Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer

    Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer
    Schell, Chilton, Van Montagu, Fraley, and Horsch transformed plants with Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer.
  • Invention of polymerase chain reaction

    Invention of polymerase chain reaction
    Kary Mullis invented polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify DNA in the laboratory.
  • DNA profiling to study of criminal cases

    DNA profiling to study of criminal cases
    Jeffries applied RFLP in DNA profiling to the study of criminal cases.
  • Invented an automated fluorescence sequencer

    Invented an automated fluorescence sequencer
    An automated fluorescence sequencer was invented speeding up the labor-intense process.
  • First use of a gene gun

    First use of a gene gun
    Genes were moved into an organism through the use of a gene gun.
  • Revised safety guidelines for recombinant DNA

    Revised safety guidelines for recombinant DNA
    NIH revised safety guidelines for recombinant DNA to include plants grown in greenhouses and animals raised in barns.
  • Discovered RNA interference

    Discovered RNA interference
    Andrew Fire and Craig Mello discovered RNA interference, slicing of genes, in the worm C. elegans.
  • Monoclonal antibody technology

    Monoclonal antibody technology
    Kohler, Milstein, and Jerne used monoclonal antibody (MAb) technology.
  • Yeast Artificial Chromosomes

    Yeast Artificial Chromosomes
    Maynard Olson and colleagues at Wasington University invested "yeast artificial chromosomes," or YACs, which are expression vectors for large proteins.
  • Dolly the sheep is cloned from adult cell

    Dolly the sheep is cloned from adult cell
    Ian Wilmut cloned Dolly the sheep from an adult cell of a ewe at the Roslin Institute in Scotland.
  • DNA chip was developed

    DNA chip was developed
    DNA microarray (DNA chip) technology, looking at the expression of all the genes of an organism at one time on a microscope slide of silicon chip, was developed.
  • Invention of automated DNA sequencer

    Invention of automated DNA sequencer
    Dabiri and Garner invented an automated DNA sequencer that had a caoability of sequencing 76,800 base pairs per hour, 5 to 30 times faster than existing sequencers. Technology like this greatly sped up the Human Genome Project.
  • Riboswitch

    Riboswitch
    Ron Breaker coined the term riboswitch for part of an mRNA molecule that can regulate its own activity and therefore gene expression.
  • Human Genome Project

    Human Genome Project
    Announcement was made of the completion of the Human Genome Project by Francis Collins and Craig Venter. The project provided the ability to find genes and give rise to the sequencing of other genomes
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    Before DNA

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    DNA Science

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    Recombinant DNA Technology and Beyond