Jan 11, 1400
PortugueseEarly to mid 1400’s Prince Henry “The
Navigator” established a marine observatory to
improve the Portuguese sailing endeavors and
conquered one of the greatest trades
problems-getting around the tip of Africa
The Cape of Good Hope was finally rounded by
Bartholomeu Diaz in 1486
Explored canary isles, African coast (Columbus
Vasco de Gama rounded Africa and continued
on to India in 1498
This event was followed by Spain, England, &
other Europeans searching for new lands.
Jan 11, 1480
Magellan (1480-1521 A.D.)In 1513 the Spanish
the globe through a passage
way at 52° S latitude now
called the Straights of
Benjamin FranklineDetermined that it took mail
ships coming from Europe.
Discovering Surface currents
and therefore in 1777 published
the first map of the Gulf
Suggested use of thermometers
to locate warm waters of G.S.
– Eastbound stay in G.S.
– Westbound avoid G.S
Voyage of “Beagle”English Naturalist, Charles
Darwin, investigated the whole
of nature leading him to make
one of the most outstanding
contributions to biology while
on his voyage aboard the
December 27, 1831 – Under
Captain Robert Fitzroy a 5
year trip surveyed the coast
line resulted in
Darwin Publishing several
papers the most famous ones
being his papers Natural
Selection and The Origin of
Matthew Fontaine Maury1806-1873 US Navy officer who compiled
Navel Charts and Instrumentations that when
used, logged, and compiled allowed sailors to
avoid catastrophic weather conditions,
currents, and tides.
In 1853 established uniform methods of
making nautical and meteorological
observations at sea.
This standardization greatly increased the
dependability of such data summarized in his
publication The Physical Geography of the
Challenger ExpeditionFirst large-scale voyage with the
purpose of increasing knowledge of the
distribution of life in the ocean and of
the chemical and physical properties of
December 1872 to May 1876 – 4 year
Most ambitious ocean exploration
project at the time
Traveled 109,000 km (68,000 miles)
Phoenicians2000 BC – Traveled extensively throughout
Mediterranean Sea, Red Sea, Indian Ocean.
They discovered the Canary Islands and
established trade with Eastern Asia.
Vikings – Eric the RedDuring a period of Climatic warming - similar to
today’s “Global Warming” - the Vikings of Scandinavia
982 A.D. Eric the Red sailed westward from
Greenland and discovered Baffin Island.
995 A.D. Eric’s son, Leif Ericson, discovered what was
then called Vineland and spent the winter in an area
of North America we call Newfoundland.
Beginning in the 13th century the climate again began
to cool and the North Atlantic began to clog with ice
throughout most of the year once ag