Post-Romanticism Timeline 5

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    Eugene Paul Gauguin

    Eugène Henri Paul Gauguin was a French Post-Impressionist artist.
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    Gustav Mahler

    Made important expansions to symphonies and Lieder. Viennese, considered and heir to Mozart and Beethoven.
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    Claude Debussy

    The most important French composer of the early 20th century: credited with composing the first modern orchestral work.
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    Richard Strauss

    German, supported Wagner's use of chromaticism - expanded on this trait. Famous for tone poems and operas.
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    Arnold Schoenberg

    Austrian composer, theorist, and painter, spent a good deal of time in Vienna. He went atonal in 1907-09.
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    Maurice Ravel

    Another French Impressionist composer. Credited with writing the first Impressionist piano piece.
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    Igor Stravinsky

    His musical style changed often. He composed The Rite of Spring, 1913. The Rite of Spring was a ballet that premiered in 1913 and it showed scenes of pagan Russian rituals. The choreography was seen as awkward and ugly. His music was more rhythmically forceful than anything ever heard before.
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    Anton Webern

    Anton Webern was best known for breaking tonality and for creating serial composition. His innovations were formative in the musical technique which later became known as total serialism.
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    Alban Berg

    Austrian composer who wrote atonal and 12-tone compositions that remained true to late 19th-century Romanticism.
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    Post-Romantic Era

    Postromantic music, musical style typical of the last decades of the 19th century and first decades of the 20th century and characterized by exaggeration of certain elements of the musical Romanticism of the 19th century.
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    Impressionism

    French Paining Style - emphasis on color and light. Literary equivalent = symbolism: Stephane Mallarme. One of the first anti- Romantic styles. Composers: Debussy, Delius, Respighi, Ravel (at times) and others. Characterized by: use of pentatonic, whole tone and other exotic scales, unresolved dissonances, parallel chords, free rhythm and general sense of vagueness.
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    Maximalism

    The end of romanticism when the 19th-century style met its extremes, just before into the more modern style of expressionism. Extreme chromaticism, extreme size of performance groups, extreme use of themes and motives and thick textures. Composers: Richard Strauss and Gustav Mahler.
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    Expressionism

    Focused on completely freeing music from tonality. Composers: Arnold Schoenberg, Alban Berg and Anton Webern. Germany and Austria circa 1910.
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    World War I

    As with all other walks of life, the First World War took its terrible toll on classical music, with many composers and performers dying in battle or left irrevocably scarred.
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    Vibraphone Invented

    The vibraphone is a percussion instrument with tuned metal bars created by Lionel Hampton. It was first used as an instrument in jazz and made it's way into orchestras in 1937 with the Alban Berg's opera.
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    World War II

    At its core, composers of the Romantic Era saw music as a means of individual and emotional expression. Indeed, they considered music the art form most capable of expressing the full range of human emotion. As a result, romantic composers broadened the scope of emotional content.