Unit 7 American History

Timeline created by briannadross
In History
  • Elevators

    Elevators have been around for thousands of years, and in the mid-19th century new ways to power them were being discovered. However, the ropes used to raise and lower them wore out easily and were not safe for people. In 1852, Elisha Graves Otis invented a safety brake that would be automatically deployed in case of a rope breaking. Otis's first elevator was installed in a department store in NYC in 1857. This is significant to progress because it made skyscrapers possible and safe.
  • Homestead Act

    In May of 1862, Abraham Lincoln encouraged the settlement of western territory by signing the Homestead Act. The act said any American, even women, would be given 160 acres of land to live on and develop for 5 years. At the end of the 5 years, the settlers would receive the title to the land. The act distributed 80 million acres of land by 1900. This is significant to the American dream because it fulfilled the American desire to go west and made it easier for people to start out on their own.
  • Morrill Land Grant Act

    The Land-Grant College Act of 1862, or the Morrill Act, gave land to states for them to finance building colleges that would specialize in "agriculture and the mechanic arts". Many colleges were built because of this act, and many still exist. This is significant to the American Dream because it spurred a higher education movement that brought colleges closer to more of the population.
  • Sand Creek Massacre

    Southern Cheyenne and Arapahoe Indians were massacred by a group of Colonel John Chivington's Colorado Volunteers at Sand Creek, Colorado. This massacre was caused by the long-running conflict for control of eastern Colorado.Chivington moved his troops to the plains where the Indians were hunting and attacked the unsuspecting people. Men, women, and children all died; 148 Indians in total. This is significant to conflict because it was a violent act by Americans against the Natives.
  • Transcontinental Railroad

    The Transcontinental Railroad was completed at Promontory Summit, Utah on May 10, 1869. The railroad was completed with a ceremony as the last spike, a ceremonial golden one, was pounded into the railroad. The Transcontinental Railroad is significant to progress because it allowed people to move themselves and products around the country much faster and more efficiently. The railroad contributed to the success of the oil and steel industries.
  • Transcontinental Railroad

    The first Transcontinental Railroad was completed at Promontory Summit, Utah on May 10, 1869. Two rail companies, the Central Pacific Railroad and the Union Pacific Railroad, both worked on completing the new line - they met in Utah. This railroad is significant to progress because it made moving around the country much faster and more efficient. Without this transcontinental railroad other industries, like steel and oil, would not have prospered.
  • Mail Order Catalogs

    Aaron Montgomery Ward is credited with beginning the nation's first mail order business and sending out the first catalogs. His business found an easy market as homesteaders settled in the west- far from the nearest department stores. Ward's catalog continued to grow, and other business started copying his idea. This is significant to progress because it was the beginning of modern day business practices and it gave homesteaders access to city-comforts.
  • Telephone

    Alexander Graham Bell founded a school for the deaf and worked as a professor of speech and vocal physiology at Boston University, but he is most known for his famous invention - the telephone. He spent several years working on his design before applying for a patent. The patent was granted on March 7, 1876; just 3 days before the first coherent sentence was transferred by telephone. This is significant to progress because the telephone opened a new means of communication, it was a huge deal.
  • Battle of Little Bighorn or Custer's Last Stand

    Fought near the Little Bighorn River in Montana territory, the Battle of Little Bighorn pitted Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer's federal troops again Lakota Sioux and Cheyenne warriors. Tensions had been rising and came to a peak when Natives missed a deadline to move from the territory. The Army was sent to move them, but they were outnumbered by Indians and killed. This is significant to conflict because it was a bloody battle between the U.S. Army and Native warriors.
  • Chinese Exclusion Act

    The Chinese Exclusion Act was passed to limit Chinese immigration into the United States. The act required anyone who qualified for immigration to get certification from the Chinese government to prove it. Because of the wording ("skilled and unskilled laborers and Chinese employed in mining") only a few people qualified to immigrate. This is significant to conflict because there was racism and violence from Americans toward Chinamen leading up to the act, and China likely wasn't very happy.
  • Wounded Knee Massacre

    The Wounded Knee Massacre marked the final chapter in the long conflict between the United States and Native Americans living on the Great Plains. This was the massacre of Sioux Indians at Wounded Knee Creek in South Dakota. Soldiers surrounded an Indian camp and a gun was fired, soon the soldiers were raining bullets on the Indians. At least 150 Sioux died, nearly half women and children. This is significant to conflict because it was a violent encounter between the Natives and the Americans.
  • Ellis Island

    Ellis Island opened as an immigration station on January 1, 1892. It was the first immigrant processing station and received over 12 million incoming Americans between 1892 and 1954. Before Ellis Island opened, it was the states' responsibility to process incoming-immigrants. This is significant to movement because it represented how many people were coming into the United States to settle.
  • Angel Island

    Angel Island was an immigration station located on an island in San Francisco Bay. This station received mostly Chinese and Japanese immigrants, was open for 30 years, and is estimated to have received about 300,000 incoming-people. Angel Island was known for its bad punishment of incoming-immigrants; sometimes detaining them for months at a time. Angel Island is significant to movement because it shows how many people were coming into America from all over the world.
  • Women's Suffrage - The 19th Amendment

    The 19th Amendment gave women the right to vote. The movement for women's rights had begun in 1848 at the Seneca Falls Convention. After a 70-year battle, women's rights activists finally won when the 19th Amendment was ratified. This is significant to the American dream because it was something women had been fighting a long time for. It also shows how America was moving forward and becoming a better and more equal place.
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    Andrew Carnegie

    Andrew Carnegie was one of the wealthiest businessmen of the 19th century. A self-made steel tycoon, he owned Carnegie Steel Corporation before selling it and working on philanthropy, including establishing Carnegie-Mellon University. Born in Scotland, Carnegie was an immigrant with no formal education. He took a job with the railroad and began investing his money, mostly in oil. Carnegie is significant to progress because his company helped fuel the economy and push the nation forward.
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    J.P. Morgan

    J.P. Morgan was one of the most powerful bankers of his time. He financed railroads and helped organize some of America's biggest corporations. Morgan followed his wealthy father into banking and was a partner in J.P. Morgan & Company. He helped stabilize the economy during financial crises, but still faced criticism by people who believed he had too much power. He is significant to progress because he was involved in the development of some important companies (railroad, General Electric, etc).
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    John D. Rockefeller

    John D. Rockefeller was head of the Standard Oil Company and one of the world's richest men. Rockefeller invested in the oil business in the early 1860s by establishing a refinery. Within a few years, his Standard Oil Company controlled the oil industry in Cleveland. Rockefeller gave away over $530 million to philanthropic causes. Rockefeller is significant to progress because his oil company paved the way for many other corporations and industries and gave money for so many important things.
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    Frederick Jackson Turner

    Frederick Jackson Turner was an American historian, best known for his "frontier thesis" - the most influential interpretation of the American past. Turner's thesis theorized the American government was formed by the frontier. Even though he was famous for this single-cause theory, Turner insisted that politics, economics, culture, and geography all combined to create America. He is significant to the American Dream because he changed the way American history is written and studied.
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    New Immigrants

    "New" or "Late" are terms used to refer to immigrants who came to the United States from 1880-1920. Unlike the "old" immigrants, this new wave was mostly from South and Eastern Europe. They were illiterate, traveled alone, had no skills, little or no money, and were Catholic or Jewish. Because of these things, they had a hard time assimilating; they settled in cities. This is significant to movement because many people came into the United States during this time.
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    Homestead Strike

    The Homestead Strike, in Homestead, Pennsylvania saw the Carnegie Steel Company and the Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers clash against each other. When workers refused to meet demands, the plant manager locked them out. Guards were called in, but they were blocked by the workers on their way to the factory. A fight broke out and 16 people were killed. This is significant to conflict because it was a disagreement and a physical fight between the workers and the guards.
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    Pullman Strike

    The Pullman Strike was a strike and boycott by railroad workers. The strike disrupted railroad lines in the Midwest United States in summer of 1894. Pullman workers were given a pay cut and many faced starvation. People wondered what they could to help and decided to boycott Pullman cars. The government had to take action to stop the chaos being created by trains not running and thousands of employees striking. This is significant to conflict because it was a disagreement affecting thousands.