timeline of music

  • Period: 1566 BCE to 1590 BCE

    Carlo Gesualdo

    was an Italian composer, one of the most significant figures of late Renaissance music with intensely expressive madrigals and pieces of sacred music with a chromaticism that would not be heard again until the end of the 19th century. The best-known event in his life was the murder of his first wife and his lover when he found them "in flagrante delicto." Forgotten over time, he was rediscovered in the 20th century due to fascination with his extraordinary music and his shocking personal deeds.
  • Period: 1500 BCE to 1553 BCE

    Cristóbal de Morales

    Cristóbal de Morales (Seville, 1500 - Málaga or, according to others, Marchena, 1553), Spanish Catholic priest and chapelmaster, being the main representative of the Andalusian polyphonist school and one of the three greats, along with Tomás Luis de Victoria and Francisco Guerrero , from the Spanish polyphonic composition of the Renaissance. His music is vocal and sacred, with only a couple of exceptions. He is probably the best Spanish composer.
  • Period: 474 to 1453

    middle ages

    in the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted approximately from the late 5th to the late 15th centuries, aligning with the post-classical period of global history. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and ended with the fall of Constantinople in 1453 AD.
  • 680

    gregorian chant

    The name Gregorian chant comes from the fact that its compilation is attributed to Pope Gregory the Great, and it is an evolution of Roman chant compared to Gallican chant. It must be clarified and understood that Gregorian chant was not composed by Pope Gregory the Great, nor was it compiled by him. It was from the 9th century onwards that his name began to be associated with this musical compendium, especially from the biography of John the Deacon
  • 991

    Guido d'Arezzo

    Guido d'Arezzo
    Guido d'Arezzo (Italian: Guido d'Arezzo;[n 1] c. 991–992 – after 1033) was an Italian music theorist and pedagogue of High medieval music. A Benedictine monk, he is regarded as the inventor—or by some, developer—of the modern staff notation that had a massive influence on the development of Western musical notation and practice.
  • Period: 1098 to 1179

    Hildegard von Bingen

    St. Hildegard, (born 1098, Böckelheim, West Franconia [Germany]—died September 17, 1179, Rupertsberg, near Bingen; canonized May 10, 2012; feast day September 17), German abbess, visionary mystic, and composer.
  • Period: 1130 to 1190

    Bernart de Ventadorn

    Bernart de Ventadorn ) was a French poet-composer troubadour of the classical age of troubadour poetry.[1] Generally regarded as the most important troubadour in both poetry and music,
  • Period: 1135 to 1201


    Léonin was the first known significant composer of polyphonic organum. He was probably French, probably lived and worked in Paris at the Notre Dame Cathedral and was the earliest member of the Notre Dame school of polyphony and the ars antiqua style who is known by name. The name Léonin is derived from "Leoninus.
  • Period: 1150 to 1230


    Perotín, French Pérotin le Grand ("the Great") or Latin Magister Perotinus Magnus (also Perotinus Magnus and Magister Perotinus) was a medieval French composer, who was born in Paris between 1155 and 1160 and died around 1230.
  • Period: 1221 to 1284

    Alfonso X el Sabio

    Alfonso X (born November 23, 1221, Burgos, Castile [Spain]—died April 4, 1284, Sevilla) king of Castile and Leon from 1252 to 1284.
  • 1300

    Guillaume de Machaut

    Guillaume de Machaut
    Guillaume de Machaut, (born c. 1300, Machault, Fr.—died 1377, Reims), French poet and musician, greatly admired by contemporaries as a master of French versification and regarded as one of the leading French composers of the Ars Nova.
  • Period: 1300 to 1400

    ars antiqua

    Ars Antiqua, in music history, period of musical activity in 13th-century France, characterized by increasingly sophisticated counterpoint, that culminated in the innovations of the 14th-century Ars Nova
  • Period: 1310 to 1400

    ars nova

    Ars Nova is a musical style that flourished in France in the Middle ages between the period 1310s till about 1400. It is translated “New Art”. During this time, the mode, time and pronation of music began to shift. Time signatures were born and there was a new structure to music and how it was made and performed. Different styles were developing, and the people of this time began to hear new sounds they had never heard before.
  • Period: 1335 to 1397

    Francesco Landini.

    Francesco Landini, (born c. 1335, Fiesole, near Florence—died Sept. 2, 1397, Florence), leading composer of 14th-century Italy, famed during his lifetime for his musical memory, his skill in improvisation, and his virtuosity on the organetto, or portative organ, as well as for his compositions. He also played the flute and the rebec.
  • Period: 1400 to 1468

    Johannes Gutenberg, the renaissance start.

    Johannes Gutenberg, (born 14th century, Mainz [Germany]—died probably February 3, 1468, Mainz), German craftsman and inventor who originated a method of printing from movable type.
  • Period: 1469 to 1529

    Juan del Encina

    Juan de Fermoselle, better known as Juan del Encina in the current spelling of his name or Juan del Enzina - in the spelling of the time (July 12, 1468 - León, 1529), was a poet, musician and playwright of the Spanish Renaissance. in the time of the Catholic Monarchs. He is considered, along with Juan de Anchieta from Gipuzkoa, as one of the greatest exponents of religious and secular polyphony in Spain at the end of the 15th century and the beginning of the 16th century.
  • 1483

    Martín Lutero

    Martín Lutero
    November 10, 1483 - Eisleben, February 18, 1546), born Martin Luder, was an Augustinian Catholic theologian, philosopher, and friar who began and promoted the Protestant Reformation in Germany and whose teachings inspired the theological and cultural doctrine called Lutheranism. Luther exhorted the Church to return to the original teachings of the Bible, which produced a restructuring of the Catholic Christian churches in Europe.
  • Period: 1510 to 1566

    Antonio de Cabezón

    Antonio de Cabezón (30 March 1510 – 26 March 1566) was a Spanish Renaissance composer and organist. Blind from childhood, he quickly rose to prominence as a performer and was eventually employed by the royal family. He was among the most important composers of his time and the first major Iberian keyboard composer
  • Period: 1525 to

    Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina

    Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina, Italian Renaissance composer of more than 105 masses and 250 motets, a master of contrapuntal composition
  • Period: 1532 to

    Orlando di Lasso

    Orlando di Lasso (various other names; probably c. 1532 – 14 June 1594) was a composer of the late Renaissance. The chief representative of the mature polyphonic style in the Franco-Flemish school, Lassus stands with William Byrd, Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina, and Tomás Luis de Victoria as the leading composers of the later Renaissance. Immensely prolific, his music varies considerably in style and genres, which gave him unprecedented popularity throughout Europe.
  • Period: 1533 to

    Andrea Gabrieli

    was an Italian composer and organist of the late Renaissance. Uncle of perhaps the most famous composer Giovanni Gabrieli, he was the first internationally renowned member of the Venetian School of composers. He had great influence in the spread of the Venetian style in both Italy and Germany.
  • Period: 1544 to

    Maddalena Casulana

    She was an Italian composer, lute player and singer of the late Renaissance. She was the first female composer to have an entire exclusive volume of her music printed and published in the history of Western music. Very little is known about her life outside of what can be inferred from the dedications and writings in her madrigal collections. She was born in 2234. possibly born in Casole d'Elsa (Italy), near Siena, consistent with his surname
  • Period: 1548 to

    Tomás Luis de Victoria

    Tomás Luis de Victoria (sometimes Italianised as da Vittoria; c. 1548 – c. 20–27 August 1611) was the most famous Spanish composer of the Renaissance. He stands with Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina and Orlande de Lassus as among the principal composers of the late Renaissance, and was "admired above all for the intensity of some of his motets and of his Offices for the Dead and for Holy Week"
  • Period: 1557 to

    Giovanni Gabrieli

    Venetian composer. Except for a four-year hiatus at the court of Munich (1575-1579), his career took place in Venice, a city where the polychoral style was in force, which he brought to its maximum splendor. A disciple of his uncle Andrea Gabrieli, upon his death in 1586 he succeeded him as first organist of the Venetian Cathedral of Saint Mark, a position he held until the end of his days. His collection of Sacrae Symphoniae (Sacred Symphonies, 1597 and 1615).
  • Period: 1575 to

    Claudio Monteverdi

    He was an Italian composer, viola player, singer, choir director and priest. He composed both secular and sacred music and marked the transition between the polyphonic and madrigal tradition of the 16th century and the birth of lyrical drama and opera in the 17th century. He is a crucial figure in the transition between Renaissance and Baroque music.Born in Cremona, where he carried out his first musical studies and compositions.
  • Period: to

    Giacomo Carissimi

    He was one of the most eminent Italian composers of the early Baroque and one of the main representatives of the Roman School.
    He was born in Marino, near Rome, in 1604 or 1605. It is not known with certainty what his early years were like or the studies he followed, but at the age of 20 he held the position of chapel master in Assisi, a position he held for several years. . In 1628, he held the same position in the church of Saint Apollinaris.
  • Period: to

    Barbara Strozzi

    She was an Italian Baroque singer and composer.1​2​ During her lifetime, she published eight volumes of her own music and had more secular music in print than any other composer of the time.3​ This was achieved without any support from the Catholic Church. and without the constant patronage of the nobility. Strozzi's life and career have been overshadowed by claims that she was a courtesan, which cannot be fully confirmed.
  • Period: to


    Stradivarius is a chain of youth fashion stores founded in 1994 by the Catalan Triquell family, sold years later (1999) to the Inditex group for the purchase of a 90% stake. In 2005 the purchase was finalized with 100% of the capital; maintaining Jordi Triquell, son of the founder, Francisco Triquell, as director.
  • Period: to

    Henry Purcel

    He was an English baroque composer. Considered one of the best English composers of all time, he incorporated French and Italian stylistic elements into his music, generating his own English style of baroque music. Henry Purcell was born in St Ann's Lane, Old Pye Street, Westminster. His father, also named Henry Purcell, was a knight of the Chapel Royal, and sang at the coronation of King Charles II of England.
  • Antonio Vivaldi

    Antonio Vivaldi
    He was a Venetian Baroque composer, violinist, printer, teacher and Catholic priest. He was nicknamed Il prete rosso because he was a priest and had red hair. He is considered one of the greatest Baroque composers, his influence during his lifetime spread throughout Europe and was instrumental in the development of the instrumental music of Johann Sebastian Bach. His mastery is reflected in having cemented the concert genre, the most important of its time.
  • Period: to

    George Philipp Telemann

    He was a German baroque composer, although his work also had characteristics of early classicism. He is considered the most prolific composer in the history of music. Self-taught in music, he studied law at the University of Leipzig. He was a contemporary of Johann Sebastian Bach and Georg Friedrich Händel. In a short autobiography written for the collection Grundlage einer Ehrenpforte (Foundations for an Arch of Triumph, 1739).
  • Johann Sebastian Bach

    Johann Sebastian Bach
    He was the most important member of one of the most prominent families of musicians in history, with more than 35 famous composers: the Bach family. He had great fame as an organist and harpsichordist throughout Europe for his great technique and ability to improvise music at the keyboard. In addition to the organ and harpsichord, he played the violin and viola da gamba. His fruitful work is considered the pinnacle of baroque music.
  • Period: to

    Georg Friedrich Händel

    He was a German composer, later naturalized English, considered one of the peak figures in the history of music, especially the baroque, and one of the most influential composers of Western and universal music. In the history of music, he is the first modern composer to have adapted and focused his music to satisfy the tastes and needs of the public, rather than those of the nobility and patrons.