Timeline #1

Timeline created by Xavier.Robinson
In Music
  • 476

    The Fall of Rome

    In 410 C.E., the Visigoths, led by Alaric, breached the walls of Rome and sacked the capital of the Roman Empire. The Visigoths looted, burned, and pillaged their way through the city, leaving a wake of destruction wherever they went. The plundering continued for three days. For the first time in nearly a millennium, the city of Rome was in the hands of someone other than the Romans.
  • 500

    Beginning of the Dark Ages

    Migration period, also called Dark Ages or Early Middle Ages, the early medieval period of western European history
  • 800

    Feudalism Begins

    Feudalism, historiographic construct designating the social, economic, and political conditions in western Europe during the early Middle Ages, the long stretch of time between the 5th and 12th centuries.
  • 991

    Guido of Arezzo

    (The years are a close estimate.) Music theorist; he is credited with creating a system of precise pitch notation through lines and spaces on a staff; he advovcated a method of sight-singing using the syllables, (ut, re, mi, fa, sol, la); his treatise, Micrologus, is the earliest and best treatise on musical composition of chant and polyphony.
  • 1098

    Hildegard von Bingen

    Composer of the first morality play; known as the Sybil of the Rhine; writer, composer, theologian; her counsel was sought after by rulers
  • 1130

    Bernart de Ventadorn

    (The years are a close estimate.) Famous troubadour; perhaps the finest of the troubadour poets; very important musically to us because more of his music survives than any other 12th century poet.
  • 1135

    Léonin (Leoninus)

    (Magister Leoninus II); Master of organum purum at the Cathedral of Notre Dame, Paris; our information comes largely from Anonymous IV's writings
  • 1170

    Walther von der Vogelwide

    Poet and Minnesinger; worked at the Viennese court; he wrote the earliest surviving minnesinger melody; his contemporaries considered him the leading composer and poet among Minnesinger
  • 1180

    Pérotin (Perotinus)

    (The years are a close estimate.) Master of discant organum at the Cathedral of Notre Dame, Paris; supposed student of Leonin; wrote 3 and 4-voice organum; his identity is regarded as speculative
  • 1200

    "The Black Death" or Bubonic Plague

    Black Death, pandemic that ravaged Europe between 1347 and 1351, taking a proportionately greater toll of life than any other known epidemic or war up to that time.
  • 1212

    Comtessa Beatri de Dia

    Famous female troubadour; she has left us the only surviving melody by a female troubadour (trobairitz)
  • 1213

    Moniot d'Arras

    (Flourished at this time.) Trouvére; wrote in several genres and forms; monk at Arras
  • 1245

    Adam de la Halle

    (The years are a close estimate.) One of the last trouvéres; wrote polyphony; studied in Paris
  • 1291

    Philippe de Vitry

    Known as the "inventor of a new art," French composer, poet, theorist, and bishop; established a new tradition of mensural notation
  • 1300

    Guillaume de Machaut

    (The years are a close estimate.) The leading composer and poet of the Ars Nova; his importance and innovations are extraordinary
  • 1325

    Francesco Landini

    (The years are a close estimate.) Known for his cadences; virtuoso organist; blind from early age; most celebrated musical personality of the Trecento; also an instrument maker
  • 1390

    John Dunstaple

    (The years are a close estimate.) The leading English composer; created a new consonant style of 3rds and 6ths that became the Renaissance style; many works destroyed during the English Reformation 1536-40; [also spelled Dunstable]
  • 1397

    Guillaume Du Fay

    (The years are a close estimate.) Franco-Flemish; the first important Renaissance composer; used older medieval cadences; [also spelled Dufay]
  • 1419

    Johannes Ockeghem

    (The years are a close estimate.) Bass singer; served 3 Kings; very respected; did not use much imitation; born in Northeastern France; important teacher
  • 1450

    Heinrich Isaac

    (The years are a close estimate.) Franco-Flemish composer who influenced German music; court composer to Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I in Vienna; served in Florence as well.
  • 1452

    Pierre de la Rue

    (The years are a close estimate.) Leading composer at the Burgundian court; never worked in Italy; very famous in his day; frequent use of canon and ostinato; preferred low sonorities
  • 1452

    Leonardo da Vinci was Born

    Leonardo da Vinci, epitomized the Renaissance humanist ideal. His Last Supper and Mona Lisa are among the most widely popular and influential paintings of the Renaissance. His notebooks reveal a spirit of scientific inquiry and a mechanical inventiveness that were centuries ahead of their time.
  • 1455

    Josquin des Prez

    (The years are a close estimate.) Considered by Matin Luther to be the "best of the composers of our time" and "the master of the notes;" he was said to have had no peer in music; French
  • 1457

    Jacob Obrecht

    (The years are a close estimate.) Made important contributions to large-scale forms and their unity; Dutch; important composer of masses in Europe
  • 1466

    Ottaviano Petrucci

    First music printer and publisher; preserved Renaissance music for us today.
  • 1483

    Martin Luther

    German theologian and composer; he was the founder of the Lutheran Church
  • 1490

    Adrian Willaert

    (The years are a close estimate.) Complex, continuous polyphony; strong advocate of textual expression; studied with Jean Mouton; served in Italian courts; extraordinary teacher, worked in Venice at St. Marks Cathedral
  • 1505

    Thomas Tallis

    (The years are a close estimate.) English organist; taught Byrd; he was Catholic during Henry VIII's troubled years; wrote both for the Latin and the reformed English liturgies
  • 1507

    Jacques Arcadelt

    (The years are a close estimate.) Dutch; worked in Rome and Paris; famous for his early madrigals and his 3 to 7-voice masses (often homorhythmic style); well published in the 16th century.
  • 1515

    Cipriano de Rore

    (The years are a close estimate.) Flemish; worked in Ferrara and Parma; associated with Willaert.
  • 1521

    Phillipe de Monte

    At the Viennese and Prague courts; religious; Franco-Flemish; mixed polyphony and homophony; one of the most prolific composers of the Renaissance.
  • 1525

    Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina

    Became and icon of Renaissance music for future generations; Roman style; responded to the requests of the Council of Trent to reform Catholic church music; mostly contrapuntal liturgical music.
  • 1530

    Italian Madrigal

    Madrigal, form of vocal chamber music that originated in northern Italy during the 14th century, declined and all but disappeared in the 15th, flourished anew in the 16th, The 14th-century madrigal is based on a relatively constant poetic form of two or three stanzas of three lines each, with 7 or 11 syllables per line.
  • 1532

    Orlando di Lasso

    (The years are a close estimate.) Also Roland de Lassus; widely traveled; employed G. Gabrieli in 1575; over 2000 compositions in all languages; one of the most versatile and prolic composers in the 16th century.
  • 1557

    Thomas Morley

    English; contributed to the development of the English madrigal; important for music publication and printing; probably a pupil of Byrd; wrote in 1597, "A Plaine and Easie Introduction to Practicall Musicke."
  • 1564

    Shakespeare was born

    William Shakespeare, English poet, dramatist, and actor, often called the English national poet and considered by many to be the greatest dramatist of all time.
  • 1567

    Claudio Monteverdi

    Ahead of his time; took music into a new style ("seconda pratica" vs. the older, "prima pratica")
  • Canzona septimi toni

    From his large collection called Sacred Symphonies. 8 musical lines interacting with each other in polyphony, sometimes creating homorhythm. Split choirs.Composed by Gabrieli