Jan 1, 1001
Anaximander 520 BCE-he was a greek philosopher.
-he wrote a book called "on nature":
-this book introduced the idea of evolution.
-they said that life started as slime in the oceans and eventually moved to drier places.
-species developed and changed over time.
Jan 2, 1001
Xenophanes 500BCE-he was greek
-he used poetry to critisize peoples vews
-it is said he was exciled for his beliefs
-he studied fossils and put forth various theories on the evolution of life
Jan 3, 1001
Aristotle 350 BCE-he was greek
-believed all things were imperfect
-created a modle of epigenetic evolution
John ray-wrote a book
-described 18,600 types of plants
-gave the first definition of species based upon common descent
-he was very interested with plants
Carolus Linnaeus-sweetish naturalist
-wrote the book "systema naturae" that classified all organisms
-these classifications are used today still
-believed god hybridized animals to make new ones
Comte de Buffon-french naturalist
-developed our definition of a species
-organisms are made by god
-believed man kind was the most important creation of god
-thought that the environment was the direct agent of change
Pierre-Louis Moreau de Maupertuis-wrote a book called "Systeme de la Nature" and "Essai de Cosmologie" about survival of the fittest
-thought that speciation took place by chance not by spontainiouse generation
Erasmus Darwin-english physician, poet, and naturalist
-wrote the book "zoonomia"
-believed in common ancestors
-had no facts to support his theorys
-Charles Darwin's grandfather
Georges Cuvier-french naturalist
-confirmed that species can be extinct
-developed a classification system for animals that is still in use today (vertebrates, articulates, molluscs and radiates).
-did not believe in evolution of any kind
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck-wrote the book "Philosophie Zoologique"
-believed in evolution
-he thought that species evolved to reach perfection
-did not believe in extinction
-believed that the more often an animal used a structure the more it would grow, and vice versa.
-inheritant characteristics were passed down
Thomas Robert Malthus-was an english scholar
-believed that sooner or later desease or famine would bring populations into cheak
-did not believe that life forms could become perfect
-wrote "An essay on the principle of population"
Charles Lyell-believed that geological processes happend at the same rate as today (so no valcanoes or asteroids are different than that of todays in intensity)
-didnt believe in catastrophism
-made the theory of gradualism
-wrote the book "principles of geology" in 1830-1833
-earth must be very old
-provided some evidence for his theory
Charles Darwin-idea of natural selection
-was born in Shrewsbury, Shropshire, England on 12 February 1809
-th beagles voyage started on 27 December 1831
-during this 5 years he studied many coasts and islands
-he collected specimens for expert appraisal
-he found major fossil descoverys in Patagonia and found lots of animals in the galapogose island
-after this he spent 20 years writing his book
-Wallace sent word to him about the same discoverys
-this urged him to publish the book
-he died april 19th 1882
Alfred Russel Wallace-did field work in the Amazon River basin and then in the Malay Archipelago.
-came up with the concept of how natural selection could contribute to speciation by encouraging the development of barriers against hybridization
-co-discovered natural selection