• The Orgin of Species published by Charles Darwin

    The Orgin of Species published by Charles Darwin
    On November 24, 1859, Charles Darwin publishes the Origin of Species. His findings include the theory of evolution through natural selection. Christians fundamentialist reject Darwin's findings because it contradicts the bibilical literalism.
  • George McCready Price writes The Fundamentals of Geology

    George McCready Price writes The Fundamentals of Geology
    Because of the growing acceptance of evolution, George McCready Price, a Seventh-day Adventist, writes The Fundamentals of Geology. In it, Price argues that the majority of fossils were created during the Great Flood, as described in the book of Genesis. Price also, "corrects" geological dating methods to conform to the fact that the Great Flood happened.
  • Evolution appears in textbooks ("Civic Biology" Hunter)

    Evolution appears in textbooks ("Civic Biology" Hunter)
    In 1914, the textbook A Civic Biology is written by George William Hunter. It is incorporated into schools all across the state of Tennessee. However, because of the Butler Act which prohibits the teaching of evolution, it was ruled by courts of Tennessee that it is in violation of the Butler Act, therefore could not be incorporated into the curriculum.
  • First Anti-Evolution Bill

    First Anti-Evolution Bill
    In 1923, one of the first anti-evolution bills appears. It is sponsored by William Jennings Bryan, who campaigned to have the teaching of evolution outlawed from public schools. Bryan succeeded persuading the legislature of Oklahoma and Florida to have anti-evolution legislation passed. During his campaign, Bryan is quoted, "What shall it profit a man," he writes, "if he shall gain all the learning of the schools and lose his faith in God?"
  • Butler Act passed

    On March 21, 1925, Tennessee creates a law known as the Butler Act. In it, it states that public school teachers are prohibited from denying the Biblical account of man's origin and that any discussion of Darwin's theory of evolution is prohibited.
  • Scopes Trial

    Scopes Trial
    The Scopes Trial, or Monkey Trial was a Tennessee legal case which Johne Scopes, a high school science teacher, was arrested for violating Tennessee's Butler Act. While it's not clear whether Scopes actually teach evolution, his main purpose for getting arrested was to bring awareness to the controversial subject of banning evolution.
  • Evolution Shunned and feared

    Because many teachers and administrators feared offending parents and community leaders, there were estimates in the early 1940s that evolution was being taught by less than half of all high school science teachers.
  • Everson v. Board of Education

    Everson v. Board of Education
    Everson v. Board of Education is a trial which determined that states must adhere to the First Amendment's Establishment clause which prohibited states from granting special privileges to religious denominations. This affected how Biblical literalism would be taught within the classroom.
  • Pope Pius XII rejects Biblical literalism

    Pope Pius XII rejects Biblical literalism
    Pope Pius XII writes Humani gereris, a paper which accepts evolution and considers this theory as a "serious hypothesis worthy of in-depth study." Because he wrote this paper, Pius allows a way for Catholics to accept the theory of evolution. He states that, "If the human body takes its origin from pre-existent living matter, the spiritual soul is immediately created by God."
  • Sputnik

    In 1957, the Soviet's launch Sputnik into space. Because of the tension between America and Russia, the U.S. shifts it's educational focus to both math and science education. Also, because of the cold war, there is a huge support, even from ultra-conservative school districts to teach more science education, including evolution.
  • "The Genisis Flood" is published

    "The Genisis Flood" is published
    In 1961, The Genesis Flood is published by Henry Morris. In it, Morris claims that Biblical literalism is supported by science. However, when The Genesis Flood is published, there is criticism from the scientific community.
  • Creationist demand equal time

    Creationist demand equal time
    In 1966, the religious activist, Nell Segraves demands that the California State Board of Education grant equal time in California schools for creationism.
  • Epperson v. Arkansas

    Epperson v. Arkansas
    Susan Epperson, a high school teacher from Arkansas, was attempting to teach Darwin's Theory of Evolution. Because Arkansas had an "anti-evolution" clause in the their state constitution, it was unlawful for Epperson to use text books that taught evolution. Through many court hearings, it was found that it was unconstitutional to protect a particular religious view.
  • Institute for Creation Research founded

    Institute for Creation Research founded
    In 1972, the Institute for Creation Research (ICR) was founded by Henry Morris. By using a scientific basis for the Biblical account of creation, the ICR committed in disproving the theory of evolution.
  • Scientific Creationsim published

    Henry Morris publishes the Scientific Creationism. In it the magazine contains two editions. The first edition is meant for public schools which safely makes not reference to the Bible. The second includes a chapter on "Creation according to Scripture." Creationists, including Morris now argue that science can confirm the account of creation as given literally in the Bible.
  • Wendell Bird publishes creationsitic strategy

    Wendell Bird publishes creationsitic strategy
    Creationists begin shifting tactics to incorporate it into schools. Wendell Bird, for example, publishes the article, "Freedom of Religion and Science Instruction in Public Schools" in the Yale Law Journal. It claims that the teaching of "scientific creationism" is not religion.
  • McLean v. Arkansas "Equal Time" Bill

    McLean v. Arkansas "Equal Time" Bill
    In 1982, McLean v. Arkansas was a trial based on many argued that the Arkansas state law, Balanced Treatment for Creation-Science and Evolution-Science Act, was unconstitutional and that it violated the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment because it forced the teaching of "creation science" in Arkansas public schools.
  • Edwards v. Aguillard

    Edwards v. Aguillard
    It was a legal case about the teaching of creationism. The Court ruled that a Louisiana law requiring that creation science be taught in public schools, along with evolution, was unconstitutional because the law was favored a particular religion. It also held that "teaching a variety of scientific theories about the origins of humankind to school children might be validly done with the clear secular intent of enhancing the effectiveness of science instruction."
  • "Of Pandas and People" is published

    "Of Pandas and People" is published
    Percival Davis and Dean Kenyon, publishes Of Pandas and People: The Central Question of Biological Origins. In it, the authors assert that an "intelligent designer" is the reason that life was created. This book was used and promoted by the Christian Right leader James Dobson, in his crusade to incorporate intelligent design in the public classroom.
  • Discovery Institute founded

    Discovery Institute founded
    The Discovery Institute was founded in 1990 as a non-profit think tank organization, which advocates the teaching of "intelligent design." The institute is responsible for the campaign "Teach the Controversy."
  • Intelligent Design

    Intelligent Design
    Darwin on Trial, by U.C. Berkeley law professor and born-again Christian Phillip E. Johnson is published. It becomes the handbook for the Intelligent Design movement and actually coins the term "Intelligent Design."
  • The wedge strategy manifesto

    The wedge strategy manifesto
    The wedge strategy, is a manifesto authored by the Discovery Institute which aimed to "reverse the stifling dominance of the materialist worldview, and to replace it with a science consonant with Christian and theistic convictions." Their main goal was to defat materialism, naturalism and evolution.
  • Textbook disclaimers

    Textbook disclaimers
    In 1994, the school board of Tangipahoa Parish, Louisiana, passes a requirement that whenever evolution is taught, all students must be informed that the material is "not intended to influence or dissuade the Biblical version of creation."
  • Pope John Paul II endorses evolution

    Pope John Paul II endorses evolution
    In 1996, another pope, John Paul II affirms evolution. In his papal letter, it proclaims there is no essential conflict between evolutionary science and the world's largest Christian faith. He states that "Evolution is compatible with Christian faith."
  • Columbine shooting spurs attack on evolution

    Columbine shooting spurs attack on evolution
    After the tragic Columbine shooting in '99, evolution is used to question the morality of American teenagers. In Congress, conservative Republican Rep. Tom DeLay of Texas links this moral decline specifically to the teaching of evolution: "Our school systems teach the children that they are nothing but glorified apes who are evolutionized [sic] out of some primordial soup."
  • Kansas Evolution Hearing

    Kansas Evolution Hearing
    Evolution and the origin of the universe had been decided optional after a 1999 hearing which the Kansas Board of Education decided these and other controversial topics would not appear in the state's standardized testing.
  • The Santorum Amendment

    The Santorum Amendment
    An amendment to the No Child Left Behind Act, known as the Santorum Amendment, was drafted by Phillip Johnson and lobbied by Rick Santorum. This Amendment which promoted the teaching of intelligent design and challenged evolution, was stripped from the bill. However, many supporters of intelligent thought the attempt to be victorious.
  • Bush against science

    Bush against science
    In 2005, the current president George W. Bush agrees with intelligent design proponents by acknowledging that Intelligent Design as well as evolution are both "competing theories."
  • Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District

    Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District
    In 2005, Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District is an American court case about intelligent design. Teachers were required to explain that intelligent design is an alternative to evolution. It was found that the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment had violated due to intelligent design being a form of creationism.
  • Bill Nye vs Ken Ham Debate

    Bill Nye vs Ken Ham Debate
    On February 4, 2014, Bill Nye, known for promoting science education through his television show Bill Nye the Science Guy, and Ken Ham, the founder and Young Earth creationist of Answers in Genesis debated about evolution and creationism.