Stage 1 Biology Timeline

  • 10,000 BCE

    Universe creation

    Described by scientists the time the universe was created
  • 10,000 BCE

    Milky way creation

    Described by scientists the time that the milky way was created ten thousand million years ago
  • 10,000 BCE

    Earth´s creation

    Said by scientists that earth was created 4500 millions years ago
  • Copernican Revolution

    Changed perspectives from our solar system to a universe of stars
  • Taxonomy

    Taxonomy is the most ancient discipline of biological sciences, the purpose of this is to order and classify biological species to form groups. This is done by observing and analyzing examples or specimens of living beings.
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    Carolus Linnaeus

    He was both a creationist and a fixist. He accepted that new plant species could appear as time passed by. His theory of speciation through hybridization is still considered true.
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    Count of Buffon

    He thought there were three causes why species could be modified: diet, climate and customs. He thought that new habits acquired during this process could be inheritable and could modify the physical characteristics of the next generation.
  • Systems of Classification

    Systems of Classification
    In 1735 Carolus Linnaeus published “Species Plantarum”, in which he described the new classification system, where species were ordered in taxonomic categories (domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species). These categories continue functioning to date, and any new species must fit into one of the mentioned categories.
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    Jean Baptiste de Lamarck

    He was the first naturalist who tried to offer an explanation on the origin of life, and did it by conceptually reformulating the ancient theory of spontaneous generation (the fact that life appeared from organic matter, inorganic matter or a combination of organic and inorganic matter).
  • Key Words

    The following words located in year 1750 are the key words of this stage. Here is the reference, "Dictionary by Merriam-Webster: America's most-trusted online dictionary. (n.d.). Retrieved September 15, 2020, from []"
  • Theory

    A plausible or scientifically acceptable general principle or body of principles offered to explain phenomena.
  • Origin

    Rise, beginning, or derivation from a source.
  • Organism

    A complex structure of interdependent and subordinate elements whose relations and properties are largely determined by their function in the whole.
  • Evolution

    Descent with modification from preexisting species : cumulative inherited change in a population of organisms through time leading to the appearance of new forms : the process by which new species or populations of living things develop from preexisting forms through successive generations.
  • Universe

    The whole body of things and phenomena observed or postulated, such as the entire celestial cosmos.
  • Natural Selection

    Natural Selection
    A natural process that results in the survival and reproductive success of individuals or groups best adjusted to their environment and that leads to the perpetuation of genetic qualities best suited to that particular environment.
  • DNA

    Any of various nucleic acids that are usually the molecular basis of heredity, are constructed of a double helix held together by hydrogen bonds between purine and pyrimidine bases, which project inward from two chains containing alternate links of deoxyribose and phosphate, and that in eukaryotes are localized chiefly in cell nuclei.
  • History of Evolutionary Thinking

    History of Evolutionary Thinking
    Until the 18th century, scientists believed that the diversity of plant and animal species had been acknowledged to a divine creation.
  • Evolution

    The term evolution has various definitions, however in biology it is referred as the series of natural processes that contribute to change the genetic characteristics of the species and lead them to continually adapt to the variable environmental conditions or to become extinct due to lack of adaptation.
  • Creationists and Fixists

    Creationists and Fixists
    Those who believed in the divine creation, were called creationists. Those who didn't believe in the divine creation, were called fixists
  • Evidence of Evolution

    Evidence of Evolution
    The set of changes which occur during embryonic development of the individuals of a species is called ontogeny. Genomics is a biologic discipline that has permitted the deciphering of the sequences of DNA. A conceptual image of genealogical relationships between species of one or various groups of species is called phylogeny. The species that originate from a same ancestor are called sister species
  • Evidence of Evolution

    Evidence of Evolution
    Fossils are remains of the hard and most resistant parts of some living beings form the past. The homologous characters are those that they had in ancient species from which other descended.
  • Albert Einstein

    deduced something called cosmic contant, said that pushing said bodies in a direction opposite and proportional to gravitational attraction, it creates a state of equilibrium
  • Lamarckism

    Lamarck's version of this theory in 1809 appealed to explain the origin of the first living beings, microbes. He affirmed that living species were not immutable, neither could spontaneously generate. He thought that from microbes descended, through continuous modifications, all the plant and animal species that inhabit the world.
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    Charles Darwin

    He thought of Buffon and Lamarck's ideas as stimuli to the rising of variation in living things, which he thought then acted as natural selection.
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    Louis Pasteur

    Louis Pasteur was born on December 27, 1822, in Dole, located in the Jura region of France. Louis Pasteur discovered that microbes were responsible for souring alcohol and came up with the process of pasteurization, where bacteria are destroyed by heating beverages and then allowing them to cool. His work in germ theory also led him and his team to create vaccinations for anthrax and rabies.
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    Louis Pasteur in the decade of 1850

    He disagreed to the spontaneous generation theory, primordially by the lack of evidence, and secondly, because it was contrary to the idea that life owed its existence to natural processes. Therefore, he designed an experiment in which he demonstrated that organic matter soups that had been sterilized, that is, microbes had bee eliminated by heating, followed by the isolation from the environment, didn't decompose.
  • The Origin of the Species

    The Origin of the Species
    Darwin referred to three aspects of evolution: adaptation, transformation and diversification of species.
  • Darwinism

    Darwin proposes evolution of species as a natural selection of those most adapted species for survival, which is transmited by inheritance.
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    Harold Urey

    Harold Clayton Urey born in 1893 in Indiana, United States of America. He is an american scientist awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1934 for his discovery of the heavy form of hydrogen known as deuterium. He was a key figure in the development of the atomic bomb.
    In the beginning of the decade of 1950, Harold read Oparin and deduce the intial compounds of the reducing atmopsthere of primitive Earth.
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    Alexaner Ivanovich Oparin

    Aleksandr Ivanovich Oparin was born in 1894, Uglich,Russia. He was a russian biochemist noted for his studies on the origin of life from chemical matter. By drawing on the insights of chemistry, he extended the Darwinian theory of evolution backward in time to explain how simple organic and inorganic materials might have combined into complex organic compounds and how the latter might have formed the primordial organism.
  • The march of nature

    The march of nature
    Lamarck took Buffon's ideas and said that these cause that laterally diverted the hypothetical progressive process of increasde in the organic and structural complexity of living beings.
  • Neodarwinism

    Neodarwinism is the combination of darwinism with modern era. According to this theory all changes made by natural selection originated from mutation and are inherited as individual particles, genes.
  • Raplh Almer and Robert Herman

    Calculated the loss of heat of the light emitted by the explosion, this phenomenon was called background radiation
  • Mutationism

    Hugo de Vries proposes that mutations include primordial factors for evolution and alternative forms of genes. Vries reffered as mutation to those different changes from species. Vries considered mutations as spontaneous changes.
  • Theory of the Osciliating or Pulsating Universe

    Alexander Friedmann: Theory that said that the current Universe could be a re-edition of many that preceeded it and the antecessors of many
  • The Origin of Life (chemical evolution)

    The Origin of Life (chemical evolution)
    Book written by Oparin and publishe in 1923. He proposed that life on Earth had originated in a primary atmosphere (different to ours) which is rich in oxygen. To him, it was obvious that oxygen had been produced by the photosynthetic activity of plants and maintained its constant concentratin in the air thanks to this very active phenomenon. Oparin first mentions the chemical evolution in here.
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    Joan Oró

    Born in 1923 in Spain. He followed Miller and Urey's example, and starting from other compounds obtained equally surprising results. He implied with his experiment that chemical evolution in abiotic conditions may continue beyond the first observed results and produced many more compounds.
  • BIg Bang Theory

    BIg Bang Theory
    Georges Limaitre, proposed that the universe once collapsed due to gravity and became the universe we know today
  • Edwin Hubble

    theorized that he had proven the expansion of the universe measuring the different red galaxied}s
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    Stanley N. Miller

    Stanley Miller born in 1930 in United States Of America. He designed the first experiment to produce organic molecules from some of the inorganic components of the Earth’s prebiotic atmosphere. Miller’s procedure (which was co-designed by Harold Urey and is known as the Miller-Urey experiment) contained three key elements: a heated pool of water meant to simulate the primitive Earth’s ocean. He worked together with Urey to experiment with this hypothetic model of the atmosphere.
  • George Gamow

    prediceted that, starting from an infinitely dense and heated beginning of matter, which cause the great explosion
  • Model of hydrosphere of primitive Earth

    Model of hydrosphere of primitive Earth
    Miller designed a system of tubes and flasks isolated from the exterior to stimulate the hydrosphere as well as the atmosphere of primitive Earth.
    Miller introduced water, methane gases, ammonia, and molecular hydrogen, which according to Urey's calculations, should be the simplest reduced compounds of all possible compounds of the Universe.
  • Biologic evolution

    Biologic evolution
    For the biological evolution to take place, a process must take place based on natural selction. Molecules are required to have individual variation and equally important: that they are able to make copies of itself. This variation exists in the genes and is due to mutation, which occurs spontaneously in each molecule. Valverde, T. (2020). The Nature of Life. Monterrey, N.L: UANL.
  • Biologic Evolution

    Biologic Evolution
    During Miller's experiments, it was discoreved how aminoacids were formed, for a special type of proteins called enzymes.
    Enzymes accelerate chemical reactions; in their absence, many indiviudal reactions would take from hundreds to thousands of years.
    However, proteins and enzymes are absolutely separted from the materials of biologic heritage. Valverde, T. (2020). The Nature of Life. Monterrey, N.L: UANL.
  • The Five Kingdoms of Life

    The Five Kingdoms of Life
    After various attempts to classify the kingdoms, in 1959 Robert Whittaker (1920-1980) finally formalized the fifth kingdom of life which he called fungi, this completed the Five Kingdom System, which is the one we currently use to describe and integrate biodiversity, this system is composed by "Monera or Bacteria", "Protista or Proctoctista", "Plantae", "Fungi" and "Animalia"
  • Biologic evolution

    Biologic evolution
    Alexander Rich (1924-2015), Carl Woese (1928-2012), Leslie Orgel (1927-2007) and Francis Crick (1916-2004) proposed the exsistence of a first biologic world based on RNA molecules. These would have unified the necessary functions for life: polymerize, make replicas of themselves and store genetic information. This theory is known as the world of RNA. Valverde, T. (2020). The Nature of Life. Monterrey, N.L: UANL.
  • World of RNA

    An evidence in favor was that small molecules of RNA performed catalytic functions of molecular compounds. These molecules were baptized with the hybrid name of ribosomes (ribose = sugar, plus enzymes).
    Yet, the world of RNA is not considered a world with life. Valverde, T. (2020). The Nature of Life. Monterrey, N.L: UANL.
  • Geologic eras

    Geologic eras
    Archean - appears the world of RNA.
    Proterozoic - appears oxygen, eukaryotic cells
    Phanerozoic - marine invertebrates dominate the Earth (paleozoic), dinosours dominated the Earth, supercontinent, subtropical forests, insects (mesozoic), diversification of mammals, deserts appear, humans family appear, great civilizations (cenozoic-)
  • World of RNA

    World of RNA
    The transition from RNA to DNA happened when RNA genes adapted until forming the first cells. Then the cell found its way to create and store proteins and enzymes in the genetoc repertory. Enzymes were so efficient catalyzing biochemical reactions that soon replaced ribosomes.
    Finally RNA became DNA. The stability of the double helix of DNA allowed for a greater fidelity in the replication of the genome. Valverde, T. (2020). The Nature of Life. Monterrey, N.L: UANL.
  • Theory of the inflationary State

    Alan Guth proposed an addition to the big bang theory and said that the theory establishes that in the first seconds of the explosion the Universe didn´t expand at the speed it does in the present