The use of Stem Cells in Spinal Cord Injuries

  • Stem cell mechanisms deduced for sperm development and intestinal epithelium replacement

    Stem cell mechanisms deduced for sperm development and intestinal epithelium replacement
  • Indication of Bone Marrow

    "Stem cells" inferred from analysis of embryo development and microscopy of bone marrow
  • First human bone marrow transplant

    First allogeneic human marrow transplants achieved avoiding lethal rejection reactions
  • First Bone Marrow Transplant

    First bone marrow transplants performed in human patients
  • Frog Research

    Nuclei from adult frog cells reprogrammed to full embryonic potential after transfer into frog eggs
  • Mice Experiments

    Experiments in mice prove the existence of resident blood stem cells in marrow
  • Transplantible Stem Cells

    The existence and properties of transplantable stem cells in mouse bone marrow are established and the first colony methodology for counting them is introduced. This discovery set the stage for all current research on adult and embryonic stem cells
  • First Application of Cell Separation

    First application of cell separation technology to dissect marrow stem cell hierarchy
  • Mouse Cancer Cells

    Mouse embryonic cancer cells are shown to participate in the development of normal tissues as well as teratomas
  • Stem Cells found in ambilical cord blood

    Transplantable stem cells are discovered in human cord blood
  • Embrionic Stem Cells are first derived

    Embryonic stem cells are first derived from the inner cell mass of mouse blastocysts
  • Marrow Stem Cells are measured by regenerative capacity

    Marrow stem cells measured by regenerative capacity in vivo are shown to be distinct from progenitors measured by colony methods
  • Altering Genetic Information

    First methodology developed for targeted genetic modification in embryonic stem cells
  • Blood Stem Cells are purified

    Blood stem cells measured by colony formation in vivo are first extensively purified
  • Mouse marrow cells are seperated

    Mouse marrow regenerating stem cells are first completely separated from in vivo colony-forming cells
  • Neural Stem Cells are discovered

    Neural stem cells identified in the adult human brain
  • Pluripotency of embryonic stem cells is proven

    Pluripotency of embryonic stem cells is proven through the generation of entirely embryonic stem cell-derived mice
  • Cancer cells are separated/ Damaged corneas are successfully treated

    First separation of cancer stem cells from the majority of cells in a cancer
    Patients with damaged corneas are successfully treated with corneal stem cells
  • Primate embrionic cells

    First derivation of primate embryonic stem cell lines
  • First cloning of an animal

    First cloning of a mammal: Dolly the sheep is born
  • Human Embrionic cell line derived

    First human embryonic stem cell line derived
  • Retinal stem cells identified in mice

    Retinal stem cells identified in mice
  • First research network for Stem Cells

    First collaborative stem cell research network - the Stem Cell Network - is formed
  • Stem Cells identified in adult skin tissue

    Dermal stem cells identified in adult skin tissue
  • Stem cells regrow mouse Skin

    Normal mammary stem cells demonstrated in adult mice First induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) generated by reprogramming adult mouse skin cells. The altered iPS cells have characteristics similar to embryonic stem cells
  • Cells reprogramed directly to nurons

    Adult cells reprogrammed directly to neurons, cardiac muscle and blood cells
  • John Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka win Nobel Prize

    John Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka win the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent