Creation105 AD - China, Cai (Ts'ai) Lun is the first to start the paper-making industry. Using mulberry bark and hemp rags with water. It was ixed and then mashed flat and the water is pressed out. It is left out to dry in the sun.
This allowed for Monks to mass produce their prayers.
Aug 1, 610
Paper spreadsIn 610 AD - After China it spreads to Korea, where the ingredients get a redesign and it's made from fibers of hemp, rattan, mulberry, bamboo, rice straw, and seaweed.
Don-cho, a Korean monk, shares his knowledge of the process with the Imperial Palace.
From there the Tibetans learned from the Chinese as well.
And the Chinese continued to introduce that process to Central Asia and Persia, where it was later transferred into India via traders.
Aug 1, 1300
Europeans Innovations14th Century - The technique for papermaking in Europe, most notably Italy, was well documented. Two italian centres, Fabriano and Amalfi, tried to improve upon the Arabian technique.
-water as power for machinery
-stamping mill for production of pulp more efficiently
-mould is wire mesh (due to progress of wire production)
-paper press with slides for feeding, this allows for quicker drying
-ropes are used to hang paper to dry
Aug 1, 1390
Germany's PaperThe first documentation of papermaking in Germany was Nuremburg councillor, Ulmann Stromer, commissioned a paper mill. It was originally designed with 2 waterwheels, 18 stamping hammers and 12 workers using one or two vats.
Paper MillsThe technology of paper mills spread quickly through Europe in the 15th and 16th century.
In Germany there were nearly 190 mills, by the end of the 16th century.
Paper mills were manned by a four-man crew.
-1 vatman, took pulp out of the vat and made the sheet with a mould.
-1 Couch Squirt, worked in tandem with vatman, placing sheets on the absorbent felt.
-1 Layman, took the still moist sheets off the felt after pressing.
-1 Apprentice, fed material into the vat and kept the heat up on a vat
Dutch PaperInvention of the Hollander beater by the Dutch, puts them out front for papermaking technology. It became more efficient than the stamping mill, and began to replace it. Creating two camps of papermakers, traditional and modern.
Moveable type increased the demand for paper, and led to a shortage of raw materials, this caused regulation by the governing the rag trade.
Flat-Screen Papermaking MachinesCreation of large operations, these "Manufactories" depended on skilled papermakers organized in craft groups. Innovations to increase production and efficiency by replacing man with machine caused more and new papermaking machines.
The first model was created by J.N.L. Robert, it was the first flat-screen papermaking machine. It was further developed in England by Donking and Fourdrinier brothers.As well as by French chemist, Claude-Louis Bertholett, who invented a chemical bleaching for pulp.
New Raw Material SearchSaxon Friedrich Gottlob Keller, invented a wood-grinding machine to produce groundwood pulp suitable for papermaking. Then Hugh Burgers and Charles Watt patented a chemical pulp for an alternative for making wood into pulp.
Fully AutomatedNot only did the papermaking process become a machine dominated business, making paper mills that could handle the increased demand on the industrial scale for paper.
The next step was improving the machines parts. Different sized papers required different sized machines.
21st Century AdvancementsContinuously evolving technology increases speed, productivity, and production quality. There was also a rise in being environmentally concious and concerned, making paper lighter, reducing energy usage and generation of biofuels.
Specialization has occured by paper makers, meaning that certain companies produce certain types of papers.