The Romantic Period (1810 - 1890)

  • Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749 - 1832

    Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749 - 1832
    He was a German writer and statesman during the Romantic era. He was known for writing very dark poems. Many of which inspired Schubert's pieces.
  • Luigi Cherubini (1760 1842)

    Luigi Cherubini (1760 1842)
    He was an Italian composer during the late Classical era and early Romantic era. Although he was an Italian composer, he wrote French operas.
  • Ludwig van Beethoven (1770 - 1827)

    Ludwig van Beethoven (1770 - 1827)
    A German composer and pianist who was widely influential in the Classical and Romantic periods. His works remain some of the most played in the era.
  • Carl Maria von Weber (1786 - 1826)

    Carl Maria von Weber (1786 - 1826)
    He was the creator of German Romantic opera. He was one of the first significant composers of the Romantic Era and was a crucial figure in the development of German Romantic Opera.
  • Gioachino Rossini (1792 - 1868)

    Gioachino Rossini (1792 - 1868)
    He was an Italian composer who gained fame for his 39 operas. He also wrote in many other genres such as sacred music, piano pieces, and chamber music.
  • Franz Schubert (1797 - 1828)

    Franz Schubert (1797 - 1828)
    He was an Austrian composer in the late Classical era and early Romantic era. He composed more than 600 secular vocal works, seven complete symphonies, sacred music, operas, and so on. Some of his famous works include "Erlkönig", "Piano Quintet in A major, D. 667", and "Symphony No. 8 in B minor, D. 759".
  • Gaetano Donizetti (1797 - 1848)

    Gaetano Donizetti (1797 - 1848)
    Donizetti was an Italian composer who was best known for his 'almost' 70 operas. Along with Rossini, and Bellini, he was a leading composer in the bel canto opera style.
  • Hector Berlioz (1803 - 1969)

    Hector Berlioz (1803 - 1969)
    He was a French composer and conductor. His symphonic works include "Symphonie Fantastique" and "Harold in Italy". He wrote three operas "Benvenuto Cellini", "Les Troyens", and "Beatrice et Benedict".
  • Frédéric Chopin (1810 - 1849)

    Frédéric Chopin (1810 - 1849)
    Polish composer and piano virtuoso. He mainly wrote for solo piano and would often write very technical pieces that would reflect his skills as a pianist and composer.
  • The trumpet gets valves

    The trumpet gets valves
  • Robert Schumann (1810 - 1856)

    Robert Schumann (1810 - 1856)
    A German composer and pianist. Known as one of the greatest composers of the Romantic era. Wrote mostly piano works, but later wrote orchestral works and Lieder. His best known works include "Carnaval", "Symphonic Studies", "Kinderszenen", and "Fantasie in C".
  • Period: to

    Latin American Wars for Independence

    Most of the Latin American colonies free themselves from Spain and Portugal.
  • Franz Liszt (1811 - 1886)

    Franz Liszt (1811 - 1886)
    Hungarian composer, piano virtuoso, and conductor. He gained renown for his prodigious piano skills and compositions.
  • Period: to

    War of 1812

    A war between Britain and the United States over British violations on U.S. maritime rights.
  • Richard Wagner (1813 - 1883)

    Richard Wagner (1813 - 1883)
    He was a German composer and conductor. He is known for his operas. He wrote both libretto and music which was unorthodox. His compositions are notable for their complex textures, rich harmonies, and use of leitmotifs.
  • Giuseppe Verdi (1813 - 1901)

    Giuseppe Verdi (1813 - 1901)
    He was an Italian composer best known for writing operas. His influences include Rossini, Donizetti, and Bellini. His works include "Aida", his "Requiem", and "Otello".
  • Congress of Vienna redraws the European map

    Congress of Vienna redraws the European map
    A national convention of ambassadors held in Vienna in order to reconstitute European political borders. This would lead to Britain being the global policing superpower until 1914.
  • McCulloch v. Maryland

    Defined the scope of the U.S. federal government's power.
  • Clara Schumann (1819 - 1896)

    Clara Schumann (1819 - 1896)
    She was a pianist, composer, and piano teacher. She was the wife of Robert Schumann. She had a longer piano career than Robert because of an accident with his hand.
  • Mexico gains independence from Spain with the Treaty of Cordoba

  • Bedrich Smetana (1824 - 1884)

    Bedrich Smetana (1824 - 1884)
    He was a Bohemian composer and is best known for his programmatic cycle of 6 symphonic poems called "Ma Vlast". He is considered the founder of program music. He would later lose his hearing and go mad.
  • Louis Moreau Gottschalk (1829 - 1869)

    Louis Moreau Gottschalk (1829 - 1869)
    He was an American composer and pianist. He was best known as a virtuoso pianist. He spent of professional life outside of the United States.
  • Johannes Brahms (1833 - 1897)

    Johannes Brahms (1833 - 1897)
    He was a German composer, pianist, and conductor. He composed for symphony orchestra, chamber ensembles, piano, organ, voice, and chorus. Some of his famous works include "A German Requiem" and "Academic Festival Overture".
  • Alexander Borodin (1833 - 1887)

    Alexander Borodin (1833 - 1887)
    Borodin was a Russian Romantic composer and was part of the group called "The Five" which was a group dedicated to producing a uniquely Russian timbre to classical music.
  • The Spanish Inquisition ends

  • The telegraph is patented

    The telegraph is patented leading to an era of long distance communication through the use of morse code.
  • Period: to

    Queen Victoria's reign over British Empire

  • Modest Mussorgsky (1839 - 1881)

    Modest Mussorgsky (1839 - 1881)
    He was a Russian composer who was part of "The Five" a group of Russian composers dedicated to creating a unique Russian sounding style of music. He strove to create a uniquely Russian musical identity. His famous works include "Pictures at an Exhibition" and "Night on a Bald Mountain".
  • Pyotr Ilych Tchaikovsky (1840 - 1893)

    Pyotr Ilych Tchaikovsky (1840 - 1893)
    He was Russian composer and one of the first Russian composers to gain national renown. Some of his most famous works include "The Nutcracker", "Swan Lake", "The Sleeping Beauty".
  • Antonin Dvorak (1841 - 1904)

    Antonin Dvorak (1841 - 1904)
    He was one of the first Czech composers to achieve worldwide renown. He was mentored by Brahms, and often found interest in North American folk music. This interest is whos in his "Symphony No.9, From the New World".
  • The New York Philharmonic

    The New York Philharmonic is founded. It is one of the leading American orchestras and is the oldest symphony orchestra in the United States.
  • Edvard Grieg (1843 - 1907)

    Edvard Grieg (1843 - 1907)
    Grieg was a Norwegian composer and pianist during the Romantic period. He was widely considered to be one of the primary composers of the era. His music can be characterized by a nationalistic sound.
  • Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov (1844 - 1908)

    Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov (1844 - 1908)
    He was a Russian composer who was also part of "The Five" which was a group of composers dedicated to creating a distinct Russian sound in music. He was best known for his orchestral works and complex operas.
  • Period: to

    Great Famine of Irelend

    Period of mass starvation and disease due to the failure of the potato crop in Ireland. This leads to the mass diaspora of the Irish.
  • Giacomo Puccini (1858 - 1924)

    Giacomo Puccini (1858 - 1924)
    He was an Italian composer known primarily for his operas. Although they come with their controversies, his operas allegedly stand as some of the greatest Italian operas ever created.
  • Gustav Mahler (1860 - 1911)

    Gustav Mahler (1860 - 1911)
    He was an Austro-Bohemian composer who acted sort of as the bridge from the Romantic era to post-Romantic era of the 20th century. His symphonies and his Lieder are most well known, but he was mainly a conductor. Mahler composed in a mostly Maximalist style maximizing texture, harmony, and orchestration in a lot of his compositions.
  • Period: to

    The American Civil War

  • The Suez Canal is constructed