The Romantic Era (1810s - 1890) - Timeline 4

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    Industrial Revolution

    Transition to new manufacturing processes in Britain, continental Europe and the United States.
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    Ludwig van Beethoven

    Transitional composer between classicism and romanticism
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    E.T.A. Hoffman

    German writer and composer, writer of "The Nutcracker" fable. His writings epitomize Romanticism.
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    Carl Maria von Weber

    Founder of German Romantic opera, studied with Michael Haydn.
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    French Revolution

    Time period of radical political change in France.
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    Gioachino Rossini

    The most famous composer in the early 19th century Vienna. Composed mostly choral music and operas.
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    Gaetano Donizetti

    Student of Mayr, Verdi's immediate forerunner in serious Italian opera; prolific composer of all genres.
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    Franz Schubert

    Austrian composer who created a genre of artistic and dramatic Lieder. Expansive melodies, frequent modulations, many unfinished works, Romanticized after his early death.
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    Vincenzo Bellini

    Italian opera composer, created dramas with extreme passion, action, and emotion.
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    Hector Berlioz

    French composer, conductor, writer, and innovator. Was the leading French musician in his day, works embody Romanticism. Modern instrumentation.
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    Mikhail Glinka

    Father of Russian music, European trained, prolific.
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    Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel

    Had the same training as Felix, but she was discouraged from composing. Married publisher. Her home was a center for intellectuals and culture.
  • Symphony No. 5 in C Minor Opus 67, Mvt. 1

    1st movement uses an insistent rhythmic drive, cyclic symphony, 4-note opening motive.
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    Felix Menelssohn

    Early romantic, conservative style. Important as a conductor, revived Bach's music, German composer of Jewish heritage.
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    Robert Schumann

    Important as a critic, editor, and composer. Lost his sanity at a young age.
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    Frederic Francois Chopin

    Polish/French composer and pianist. He innovated new piano technique, more famous today than during his lifetime. Known for his character pieces.
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    Franz Liszt

    Virtuoso pianist, conductor, author, supporter of Wagner. Innovator in musical form, aesthetics, and harmonies. Invented the orchestral tone poem.
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    Giuseppe Verdi

    The leading Italian opera composer of the 19th century. Became a national hero of Italy.
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    Richard Wagner

    Creator of German music drama..........
    Conductor, writer, musical innovator, wrote about music of the future. Anti-Semite...........
    Profoundly influenced Western harmonies, strove for endless melodies.
  • "Erlkonig"

    Based on the legend of the King of the Elves. One of the most romantic-sounding pieces ever made by Schubert.
  • "Wanderer Above the Sea of Fog"

    Painting by Caspar David Friedrich, shows the same aesthetic of the Romantic Spirit in art.
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    Charles Gouriod

    French prolific composer, wrote in most genres of the day.
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    Clara Wieck Shumann

    Virtuoso pianist, wife of Robert Schumann. Close friend of Brahms.
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    Der Freischutz (The Magic Bullet...)

    First German romantic opera composed by von Weber.
  • Full-sized Piano

    "Broadwood" is a production firm that was largely responsible for innovating the piano, making pianos progressively louder, larger, and more robustly constructed.
    1810s - six octaves (Beethoven used extra notes in his later works)
    1820s - seven octaves
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    Cesar Franck

    French nationalist composer, teacher, and organist.
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    Anton Bruckner

    Austrian composer and organist. Follower of Wagner. Known for his large orchestrations, incredible conscientious approach to composition.
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    Bedrich Smetana

    Czech composer; established Czech opera in the 19th century. Nationalist.
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    Johann Strauss

    Viennese composer, conductor, and violinist. "Waltz-King."
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    Stephen Foster

    American songwriter; vernacular style.
  • "Lieder ohne Worte" (Songs without Words)

    Set of short, lyrical character pieces.
  • "Symphonie fantastique"

    Program symphony by Berlioz that has 5 movements. Idee fixe.
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    Joseph Joachim

    Hungarian violinist, composer, conductor, and teacher. Toured with Clara Schumann, friends with Brahms.
  • Mazurka in B-flat minor, Opus 24, No. 24

    Character piece (Mazurka is the sub-genre).
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    Johannes Brahms

    Austrian composer, known as a classic-romantic. Strong knowledge of the musical past. One of the first editors of Bach's music; conductor, pianist, friends, with the Schumanns; never wrote an opera.
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    Camille Saint-Saens

    French composer, pianist, organist, and writer.
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    Georges Bizet

    French composer who created a new type of serious French opera.
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    Modest Musorgsky

    One of the Russian Mighty Five; most famous of the 5 today. Music is rooted in Russian folksong and lore.
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    John Knowles Paine

    American organist and composer. Teacher of the new generation of American composers. Harvard's first professor of music.
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    Piou Il'yich Tchaikovsky

    Russian composer, conductor, and teacher. Western trained, emotional, conservatives, harmonic language.
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    Antonin Dvorak

    Most famous of Czech composers. Lived in the USA, influenced by African-American and Native American music and culture.
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    Edvard Grieg

    Nationalist from Norway. Known for "Peer Gynt."
  • Telegraph

    With the financial support of Congress, Morse started developing the telegraph in 1843 and sent the first message through Telegraph in 1844.
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    Gabriel Faure

    French composer, teacher, and keyboardist. Foreshadowed modern tonality and style, extremely important as a teacher, head of the Paris Conservatory.
  • Invention of the Saxophone

    The saxophone was invented by Belgian-born inventor Adolphe Sax in 1846.
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    Leos Janacek

    Czech composer, ethnomusicologist. Influenced by folk music.
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    John Philip Sousa

    American, leader of the U.S. Marine Band in 1880.
  • "Die Walkure" (The Valkyrie)

    Second opera in his 4-opera cycle. (music drama...) One of Wagner's most well-known operas.
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    Edward Elgar

    English composer, received international acclaim. Not folksong oriented.
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    Giacomo Puccini

    Italian opera composer, gift for delicate melodies. Strove for realism. The most successful Italian opera composer after Verdi.
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    Hugo Wolf

    Wrote mostly Lieder, influenced by Wagner.
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    Jean Sibelius

    Finland Nationalist. Composed "Finlandia" in 1899.
  • "Aida"

    One of Verdi's famous operas.
  • "Ma vlast" (My country)

    Tone poem, uses sounds to replicate sounds of the Moldau River. Program piece by Smetana.
  • Light Bulb Development

    In 1879, Thomas Edison was able to produce a reliable, long-lasting electric light bulb in his laboratory.
  • Symphony No. 3 in F Major Op. 90

    Traditional 4 movement symphony. Absolute music, "modern."