Period: 476 to 1430
Medieval EraFall of Rome = start of middle ages
Period: 715 to 731
Gregorian ChantThe Roman Dialect of Chant
The chants were reorganized and cataloged by Pope Gregory (ruled between 715 CE and 731 CE)
Period: 850 to 1150
Period: 900 to
OrganumFirst described c. 900 CE, extant in the 800s CE, notated c. 1000 CE
Plainchant “melody” with an added melody
What resulted was a musically sung piece of parallel 4ths and 5ths
3rds were dissonant and should not be used
Period: 991 to 1033
Guido d’ArezzoInvented Staff
Period: 1150 to 1450
Period: 1346 to
Bubonic (Black) PlagueNearly 700 years after the Black Death swept through Europe, it still haunts the world as the worst-case scenario for an epidemic. Called the Great Mortality as it caused its devastation, this second great pandemic of Bubonic Plague became known as the Black Death in the late 17th Century.
Period: 1390 to 1453
John Dunstable (Dunstaple)English, but influenced musical style in Europe.
Composers who heard his music were impressed by the “English quality”. (la contenance angloise)
More 3rds and 6ths were used in the harmonies: this resulted in what we think of triadic music.
Period: 1397 to 1474
Guillaume DufayFirst Renaissance composer
Period: 1400 to 1450
Puisque M’AmourAttributed to Dunstable in two separate sources.
Rondeau (forme fixe) for 3 voices.
Period: 1420 to 1497
Johannes OckeghemVery respected and prolific; also a low bass
Period: 1430 to
Renaissance Era•New complex currents of
Period: 1435 to 1511
Johannes TinctorisComposer and music theorist: wrote about contemporary music. Wrote the first dictionary of musical terms: Diffinitorum musices (c. 1475).
Period: 1450 to 1521
Josquin des PrezMost revered Renaissance composer, esp. by Martin Luther. His music was so emotion-filled and popular that others would try to pass off their music as his. Over 100 motets, 17 masses, many French chansons, and Italian secular songs are extant
Period: 1450 to 1517
Heinrich IsaacProlific German composer
Period: 1452 to 1519
Leonardo da VinciIntroducing the viola organista, an incredible instrument conceived by Renaissance polymath Leonardo da Vinci.
Period: 1480 to 1480
Ave MariaMotet (Latin motet) for 4 voices
Textures: Imitative polyphony, homorhythmic, and polyphonic
He is thinking about motives and imitation
•Opening motive is derived from the chant melody
Period: 1490 to 1562
Adrian WillaertFather of text expression
Period: 1500 to
Other secular genres•Chanson: like the frottola, but in French
•Italian Madrigal: originally Italian, more serious poetry and music
•English Madrigal: in English, use of nonsense syllables, last to develop
Period: 1504 to 1511
FrottolaSecular genre: “Pop music” of the later Renaissance. Ottaviano Petrucci: one of the most important early music publishers.
Pange lingua Mass
Period: 1521 to
Philipp de MonteMost prolific composer of the Renaissance
Period: 1525 to
Giovanni Pierluigi da PalestrinaThe most famous composer from the Renaissance.
The church wanted everything homorhythmic.
Palestrina continued using polyphony, showing that he could make any texture understood.
The Italian Madrigal•Used aristocratic poetry
•Flourished in Italian courts
•Spread to England
•Instruments participated but were rarely notated
•First madrigals were homorhythmic and 4 solo voices (similar to a frottola)
•5 solo voices became the norm around 1550: by 1600 no restrictions
•Became the experimental genre for the Baroque style
Period: 1531 to
The Lutheran LiturgyThe Catholic church excommunicated Martin Luther. Chants still important: they served cantus firmi (cantus firmus)
Composers began using secular tunes for the cantus firmus
Cantus firmus: A pre-existing melody that was used as the foundation, usually in the tenor part, for a newly composed polyphonic piece – usually a mass or motet
Period: 1532 to
Orlando di LassoRanks in importance with Josquin and Palestrina
Period: 1543 to
William ByrdImportant Catholic English composer working in Protestant England. •A Roman Catholic living in Protestant England
•Harassed because of his faith and put up with a lot
•His talent provided protection from serious persecution
•Wrote several anthems: Anthem implies English and Protestant composition
Period: 1545 to 1563
The Council of TrentCatholic musical reforms. Set new guidelines for music and musicians.
Period: 1548 to
Tomás Luis de VictoriaCarries on Palestrina’s style while working in Spain
Period: 1557 to
Giovanni GabrieliThe leading composer of instrumental ensemble music and polychoral works in the late Renaissance
Period: 1564 to
ShakespeareHe lived into the early Baroque – many Renaissance-style songs were composed for and used in his plays.
Period: 1567 to 1567
Pope Marcellus MassSupposedly written to satisfy the Council of Trent
•6 a cappella voices
•Polyphonic and homorhythmic
Period: 1567 to
Claudio Monteverdi•Moved music from the
Renaissance style to the Baroque
•He wrote 9 books of madrigals
•During the Baroque era, he composed several operas
Period: 1570 to
John FarmerEnglish composer active in Dublin and London Fair Phyllis
•4 solo voices
•Word painting on
“all alone,” “up and