The History of Special Education in The U.S

Timeline created by atorr303
In History
  • Brown V. Board of Education

    Brown V. Board of Education
    The U.S. Supreme Court in Brown V. Board of Education of Topeka ruled that school segregation by race was not constitutional. This was the first time that the federal government had advocated for students who experienced disadvantaged backgrounds. This correlates to individuals with disabilities because it paved the path for future legislation for people with disabilities.
    https://spedlawblog.com/2019/07/20/brown-v-board-of-education-1954-and-the-development-of-special-education/
  • Department of Public Welfare v. Haas

    Department of Public Welfare v. Haas
    The Supreme Court ruled that Illinois did not have to provide free public education to students with disabilities because they were considered "feeble-minded" or "mentally deficient". Unfortunately, the Brown v. Board of Education case did not protect students with disabilities. These students that lived in Illinois, unfortunately, dealt with many obstacles and struggles due to the case of Department of Public Welfare v. Haas.
  • The Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA)

    The Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA)
    This act began the intervention of the federal government in protecting and providing for students with disabilities and overall, the students with disadvantaged backgrounds. The purpose of this was to create equality for disadvantaged students in the public education system. This was a step in the right direction going forward.
  • Education of the Handicapped Act

    Education of the Handicapped Act
    The ESEA was revised in 1970 by this act. This act's purpose was to continue support for state-run programs for those with disabilities. However, this act was not specific and was basically ambiguous as to how it would develop these support programs and how they would function.
  • Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act

    Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act
    This act included Section 504 which prohibited discrimination against people with disabilities from agencies that receive federal funds. This section required these agencies to provide the same service to all individuals regardless of disabilities. In other words, these agencies were not allowed to refuse services to individuals with disabilities.
  • The Education of All Handicapped Children Act

    The Education of All Handicapped Children Act
    This act was signed and enacted by former President Gerald Ford as an amendment to the Education for All Handicapped Act of 1974 which was also known as Public Law 94-142. This law required free, appropriate public education (FAPE) in the least restrictive environment. The act's name was later revised to "The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act" (IDEA).
  • Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)

    Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
    The Education of All Handicapped Children Act was later revised, reauthorized, and expanded to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). This act was revised and amended again in 1997 and in 2004. This act provided more opportunities for students with disabilities.
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3XMndYNEGFA
  • Amendments to IDEA

    Amendments to IDEA
    Former President Clinton signed and enacted amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) in 1990. This change to IDEA centered on improving the education of children with disabilities by identifying children with disabilities before they enrolled in schools and provided services. This began the development of IEPs which focused on improving student educational results, creating non-restrive environments for them as well.
  • No Child Left Behind Act

    No Child Left Behind Act
    The Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA) was later revised and renamed the No Child Left Behind Act. The goal of this act was to provide equal educational opportunities to student minorities. The act held schools responsible for student's progress and as a result, there was an increase in standardized testing. Additionally, school funding increased in other to provide more students with available resources.
  • Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA)

    Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA)
    This act was signed by former President Obama. This act's purpose was to provide equal opportunity for all students of all backgrounds. ESSA replaced the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) that was enacted and signed by the former president George W. Bush in 2002.