The French and Indian War

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    French and Indian War

    The French and Indian War started in May of 1754, with the Battle of Jumonville Glen, an ambush of 35 Canadian soldiers. This ambush was led by George Washington, who later retreated to Fort Necessity. The war ended in February 1763, with the Treaty of Paris. This war was important because it set the groundwork for the American Revolution.
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    Albany Congress

    Seven of the thirteen colonies sent representatives to discuss beter relations with the Native Americans and common defense measures agains the French. The congres also approved Franklin's Plan of Union, but not all colonies accepted it.
  • Battle of Fort Necessitiy

    Battle of Fort Necessitiy
    This was one of the First battles of the French and Indian War. The commander of the British soldiers was George Washington. This battle was important because it taught Washington valuable military lessons, like not to build a fort in a valley.
  • Battle of Monongahela

    Battle of Monongahela
    General Braddock is defeated; losing two-thirds of his men and officers, along with his own life (he suffers battle wounds and dies on the 13th). The British loss results in Fort Duquesne remaining under French control, along with Ohio County.
  • Battle of Lake George

    Battle of Lake George
    William Johnson led 1500 colonists and 200 Mohawks (including war chief Hendrick) against 1500 French and Indian troops in the Battle of Lake George. The battle was inconclusive (both sides took roughly equal casualties), and Hendrick died, but Johnson gained a lot of ground in his advance up Lake George, allowing him to build Fort William Henry.
  • Britain declares War on France

    Britain declares War on France
    This marked the start of the Seven Years' war between France and Britain in Europe, although fighting had been going on in North America for about 2 years.
  • William Pitt becomes Secretary of State

    William Pitt becomes Secretary of State
    William Pitt becoming Secretary of State for the Southern Department is an important event because he later improved England's fighting chance, by sending more troops, getting better commanders, and pointing out that the St. Lawrence and Niagara rivers were important military targets. He also treats the American colonists as partners rather than subjects, and promises paying them back for helping with the war, causing a large amount of support from the American colonists.
  • Siege of Fort William Henry

    Siege of Fort William Henry
    A Force of 6,000 French regulars and militiamen, allied with nearly 2,000 Native Americans, succeeded in defeating the 2,500 strong British forces defending fort William Henry. However, despite agreements between French general Louis-Joseph de Montcalm, and Lieutenant Colonel George Monro, saying that all surviving British troops could safely retreat to Fort Edward, provided they didn’t fight again for 18 months, around 200 British forces were killed after the battle by the Native Americans.
  • Siege of Louisbourg

    Siege of Louisbourg
    A large British fleet led by General Jeffrey Amherst, made a successful attack on Louisbourg, a city on the end of the St. Lawrence River. This 48-day siege was important because the British victory resulted in the loss of naval protection for Quebec and New France, plus the eventual loss of French territory in areas such as present day Newfoundland, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island.
  • Battle of Fort Niagara

    Battle of Fort Niagara
    William Johnson and General John Prideaux led a force of British regulars, colonial militiamen and Iroquois in an attack on the French Fort Niagara. Although Prideaux died in battle, the 19 day siege resulted in a British victory, and later gained them control of the Niagara River.
  • Battle of the Plains of Abraham

    Battle of the Plains of Abraham
    British General James Wolfe surprises Montcalm from the rear- his 1700 men climb a 175-foot cliff, and over 4,000 additional troops arrive later. Montcalm, underestimating the British forces, attacks, but hidden men and artillery rip him apart. Although Wolfe dies in battle, and Montcalm dies two days later from battle wounds, the French are defeated. This battle is important because it left the remaining French troops in a state of confusion, making the British campaign an easier success.
  • Surrender of Montreal

    Surrender of Montreal
    After winning the Battle of the Thousand Islands, General Jeffrey Amherst surrounded the City of Montreal. This event was important because it officially marked the end of Fighting in North America during the French and Indian War.
  • France gives Louisiana to Spain

    France gives Louisiana to Spain
    In a secret agreement between King Louis XV of France and King Charles III of Spain, all French territory west of the Mississippi River was given to Spain, as compensation for Spain losing Florida to Great Britain.
  • Treaty of Paris

    Treaty of Paris
    The Treaty of Paris officially ended all fighting in the French and Indian War. It was signed by Great Britain, France and Spain, and marked the beginning of British dominance outside Europe.