The Evolution of Career and Technical Education

Timeline created by kdbg04
In History
  • Franklin Institute established in Philadelphia

    Established following the model of the Mechanics' Institute in England, an organization of mechanics whose purposes were in part educational. Other such institutes followed in other American cities.
  • Rensselaer Institute founded

    Combined academic science and work to improve understanding of the interrelationships between the sciences and agriculture and mechanics.
  • American Lyceum of Science and the Arts

    Established by Josiah Holbrook at Millbury, Mass., to provide for vocational needs as well as educational and cultural needs, for a well-rounded populace.
  • Society for Promoting Manual Labor in Literary Institutions formed

    Led by Theodore Weld. Advocated for manual labor as part of school work.
  • Education Committee of the Pennsylvania House reports on manual labor academies

    Committee finds that expenses were reduced when students worked, that exercise contributed to better health, and manual labor did not detract from progress in classical studies
  • First public normal school

    Established by Massachusetts in Lexington
  • Catherine Beecher publishes Treatise on Domestic Economy for the Use of Young Ladies at Home

    Emphasized the need to include in girls' school work some preparation for matrimony. Text set the pattern for homemaking education.
  • First Morrill Act

    Established land-grant colleges to promote agricultural and industrial education in every state.
  • Hampton Institute organized

    Organized to provide skilled labor for reconstruction after the Civil War and a liberal education so that former slaves might improve their status.
  • Kalamazoo decision of the Michigan Supreme Court

    Established the legal right of the school board to levy taxes for public high schools for practical studies and college-prep alike.
  • St. Louis Manual Training School established

    Earliest practical application of manual training concepts for secondary school students.
  • Tuskegee Normal School for Colored Teachers

    School established by Booker T. Washington. Later became Tuskegee Institute and Tuskegee University.
  • New York Trade School founded

    First school to offer specific trade training with supplementary studies related to each trade, a hybrid of apprenticeship and traditional schooling.
  • Hatch Act

    Established Agricultural Experiment Stations and funded applied research in agriculture to address farmers' problems
  • Sloyd system first offered in the U.S.

    Originally developed in Scandinavia to instill a love for work, to develop self-reliance, and to cultivate dexterity. Students prepared items that could be used at home and become the basis for a home industry.
  • Second Morrill Act

    Provided educational opportunity for African American students
  • Douglas Commission report issued

    Landmark report commissioned by Massachusetts Gov. Wm. Douglas advocating for industrial education in the public schools.
  • National Society for the Promotion of Industrial Education formed

    A group formed in New York City in recognition of the need for industrial education in the U.S. and to advocate for it.
  • Smith-Lever Act

    Established the Cooperative Extension Service to disseminate information developed at land-grant universities. Nationalized 4-H clubs through Cooperative Extension to connect public education and rural life through hands-on learning.
  • Smith-Hughes Act

    Provided the first federal money for vocational education in public high schools, for programs in agriculture, home economics, and industrial education.
  • George-Reed Act

    Authorized additional appropriations, with increases for agriculture and home economics but not trades and industry.
  • US House committee proposes eliminating Smith-Hughes funding

    Proposed to cut Smith-Hughes funding by 10% per year until zero. Great debate ensued (cut to save now or keep spending to maintain capability) and in the end funding was retained.
  • George-Ellzey Act

    A second supplement, to replace the George-Reed Act. Included increased funding in all vocational fields authorized by the Smith-Hughes Act, which allowed enrollments to increase.
  • George-Deen Act

    Authorized vocational education programs without term limitations. Added marketing programs to vocational education and funded teacher training.
  • Roosevelt directive Office of Education to increase vocational training

    Multiple avenues to improve the nation's defense capacity in the build-up to WWII.
  • National Defense Training Program initiated

    From a proposal from the Office of Education through Congress and the President to start-up of schools in only 34 days. Also known as Vocational Training for War Production Workers.
  • George-Barden Act

    Substantial increases in funding from the George-Deen Act. Promoted as essential for post-war reconversion.
  • Vocational Education Act of 1963

    Authorized new permanent federal assistance for vocational education. Programs required for high schools, for those out of high school, for unemployed or underemployed persons, and those with academic or socioeconomic handicaps. Funding provided for construction of vocational schools.
  • Education for a Changing World of Work published

    Report produced by a White House panel concludes that vocational education is needed as an investment in our economy, for our future prosperity and happiness, and our position in world markets.
  • Vocational Education Amendments of 1968

    Provided greater flexibility in programs, to increase the reach of vocational education. Added national and state advisory councils to provide quality control on vocational education programs.
  • Education Amendments of 1976

    Provided basic state grants for vocational education support, work-study and cooperative education, and for disadvantaged and disabled students. Also added the National Assessment of Vocational Education to provide accountability.
  • A Nation at Risk is published

    Report of a White House panel pushes an academic education for all Americans and makes no recommendations on vocational education except regarding computer science.
  • Carl Perkins Vocational Education Act

    Focused on modernization and program improvements. Provided for access to programs for special populations.
  • Carl Perkins Vocational and Applied Technology Act (Perkins II)

    Established block grants to fund vocational programs and shifted decision-making authority to the local level.
  • School-to-Work Opportunities Act

    Provided funding to integrate school-based learning with the workplace with work-based learning (paid work experience and workplace mentoring), school-based learning, and connecting activities. Funded for seven years and then no longer.
  • Carl Perkins Vocational and Technical Education Act (Perkins III)

    Provided funding for CTE programs but eliminated continuing appropriations from Smith-Hughes. Focus on improving achievement and preparing students for life after secondary school.
  • Carl Perkins Career and Technical Education Improvement Act (Perkins IV)

    Authorized funding for six years. Increased focus on academic achievement in CTE, connections between secondary and post-secondary education, and local accountability. Changed "Vocational Education" to "Career and Technical Education."
  • Spellings Commission releases report

    Commission on the Future of Higher Education formed to look at higher ed's performance in preparing workers for the 21st century and secondarily at how secondary schools are preparing students for higher ed. Commission concludes, among other things, that high schools aren't doing what they ought and that is largely due to lack of communication between high schools and higher ed.
  • Perkins IV authorization ends

    Congress continues funding CTE through annual appropriations.
  • Perkins V?

    Reauthorization of the Perkins Act is pending in Congress.