6833668 student bookworm by a welcome classroom chalkboard

The Development of the United States Educational System

By mganoza
  • Beginnings of an American school system

    Beginnings of an American school system
    Schools were mandatory in larger towns and neither public nor free. The curriculum followed the beliefs and scriptures of the Bible. Only the elite could continue on to college and advanced education.
  • Thomas Jefferson's and Universal Education

    Thomas Jefferson's and Universal Education
    Considered a radicalist at his time for his belief in a tax-supported public education system for all children (except females and slaves) to guarantee a 3-year education and advanced schooling for a select few.
  • Noah Webster: Father of American Scholarship & Education

    Noah Webster: Father of American Scholarship & Education
    Noah Webster was an important educational leader during the early formation of the U.S. He created books designed to teach children how to read, pronounce, and the grammatical rules of the new adopted American language. He also produced an American textbook known as the "Blue Back Speller," It was structured to teach about the U.S. and it's people.
  • Catherine Beecher

    Catherine Beecher
    She founded colleges and trained other women to be teachers in the midwest making teaching a respectable profession for women, uncommon during times when it was typically their role to just get married.
  • Horace Mann: Common Schools

    Horace Mann: Common Schools
    He was the U.S. first Secretary of Education. He retorted to the impoverished and unsafe conditions of the schools. He advocated for educational reform in what is known is 'common schools' teaaching general knowledge for an equal chance in life. He believed the public was obligated to fund schools that's tax based which was heavily refuted. He standardized desks, textbooks and chalkboards. He was regarded as one of the most influential figures of his time.
  • Great School Debates & the Philidelphia Church Riots

    Great School Debates & the Philidelphia Church Riots
    Bishop John Hughes demanded from the primarily Protestant city of New York that they provide Catholic schools . The Great School debates of teaching Protestant views to Catholic students instigated the Philidelphia Church Riots leaving 13 people dead and the Catholic church burned resulted in the revision of textbooks targeted against Catholics. Later he organized a national system of Catholic schools becoming a primary alternative to previously established school systems.
  • African American Efforts for Equal Education

    African American Efforts for Equal Education
    African Amercian parents and education reformers assimilated to create strategies of protest with the help of escaped slave Fredrick Douglas to integrate schools for equal privileges to acquire the best education. Through their efforts, they assembled a petition urging their requests with no response from the school system.
  • First Law Abolishing Segregation

    First Law Abolishing Segregation
    Robert Benjamin sues the city of Boston for the integration of public schools and eventually led to the abolishing of segregation of schools in Massachusetts, the first of its kind in the nation.
  • U.S. Leads Education worldwide

    U.S. Leads Education worldwide
    The United States is providing more school to more children than any other nation worldwide primarily because the nineteenth century reform movement. Yet, discrimination separated minorities whom were sent to special schools and often taught to abandon their cultural traditions and dress as with the Native Americans.
  • John Dewey: Father of Progressive Education

    John Dewey: Father of Progressive Education
    He published a critique of the educational system titled 'School and Society' that attacked the public schools current practices.
  • Child Labor

    Child Labor
    2 million working American children who would rather work than go to the poor conditions at school.
  • Creation of IQ Tests

    Creation of IQ Tests
    Lewis Terman inventor of the IQ tests developed it to asses children's ability and capability of knowledge to determine the placement of students. IQ tests and later the formation of the Scholasticc Aptitude Tests examining ethnic minorities were criticized because of how it reinforced racial discrimination with the IQ tests in effect beyond WWII.
  • Gary Plan: Progressive Curriculum

    Gary Plan: Progressive Curriculum
    "Make every workingman a scholar and every scholar a working man." The curriculum was designed to accentuate all the skills of the students in order to preserve the rural traditions of family farms endangered by the relentless modernization of that time period. It's wide range of affect spread to 200 American cities.
  • End of Gary Plan

    End of Gary Plan
    New York City John Mitchel implemented the Gary Plan in 30 schools within New York City creating strong disapproval from the public and schools. During the mayor elections, John Highland's accusations of cheap corporate labor toward John Mitchel and his Gary plan allowed him to ascend to the position as the new mayor extinguishing the Gary Plan once and for all.
  • WWI Impact

    WWI Impact
    The impact of WWI created an English only curriculum and history classes that praised U.S. heroes, reciting patriotic songs and celebrating U.S. holidays.
  • Elwood Cuberly: Career Tracking

    Elwood Cuberly: Career Tracking
    Established a career tracking program while dividing students into classes based on their future role in society of either continuing onto college or learning the basics of home economics.
  • New Child Regulations

    New Child Regulations
    This time period marked the end of child labor and required that all children attend school until the age of 16.
  • African American Segregation

    African American Segregation
    17 states across the nation enacted African American segregation.
  • NAACP: Desegregation

    NAACP: Desegregation
    The U.S. Supreme Court stated segregation was legal as long as separate facilities were equal although NAACP highly disagreed that schools were inadequate.
  • Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas

    Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas
    Supreme Court ruled the segregation of white and black children in public schools unconstitutional. This event helped spark the Civil Rights movement in the 1960's.
  • The Impacts of Sputnik

    The Impacts of Sputnik
    The Soviets succeeded in the 'space race' when they launched Sputnik, the first artificial satellite sent to Earth's orbit which urged the passage of the National Defense Act in 1958. This act financially funded over one-hundred million dollars annually resulting the emphasis of courseworkd in advanced math and science courses.
  • Little Rock Nine

    Little Rock Nine
    President Dwight Eisenhower sent federal troops after the governer of Arkansas denied nine black students from attending high school.
  • Ban of the IQ Test

    Ban of the IQ Test
    Julian Nava rallied the movement of IQ tests that led its termination in Los Angeles schools while others are still fighting to this day about the existence of career tracking.
  • Lyndon Johnson as President

    Lyndon Johnson as President
    "Equal chance in education means equal chance in life." He fought for the 'war against poverty,' establishing programs to help disadvantaged children.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964

    Civil Rights Act of 1964
    A significant legislative act signed by Lyndon Johnson to end racial discrimination and segregation from schools, public transportation and social activities.
  • Elementary and Secondary Education Act

    Elementary and Secondary Education Act
    Created to financially aid disadvantaged children, a major piece of legislation that helped pave the way towards desegregation. Eight years after the Civil Rights act 91% of southern african american children would attend integrated schools.
  • A Multicultural America: Chicano Civil Rights Movement

    A Multicultural America: Chicano Civil Rights Movement
    Jose Guiterrez, an alumni of Crystal City High School, a leader of the Chicano Civil Rights Movement became president of the Crystal City school board which prevailed in an integrated curriculum of Spanish history with Spanish teachers where Spanish was spoken freely.
  • Title IX-Womens Rights Movement

    Title IX-Womens Rights Movement
    The enactment to end gender discrimination which significantly affected women in high school sports and pave the belief system of stereotypical roles of men and women.
  • Title IX:Women's Equal Rights Movement

    Title IX:Women's Equal Rights Movement
    Women demanded equal opportunity in employment blaming the educational system for sex discrimination.Title IX enacted the end to sex discrimination. Girls were often diverted away from math and science and boys in sports labeling men and women into their stereotypical roles.
  • Bussing Controversy

    Bussing Controversy
    A federal judge executed the ruling for suburban students bussed into urban limits and urban students be bussed to suburban schools to promote equal opportunity of education and prevent segregated schools.
  • Bilingual Education Act

    Bilingual Education Act
    The U.S. Supreme Court found discrimination in the San Francisco school district the same year the federal government allocated $68 million dollars for bilingual programs and publications in over 70 different languages.
  • Women's Right Movement towards Gender Equality

    Women's Right Movement towards Gender Equality
    On behalf of girls nationwide the Womens Equity Action League filed suit against the federal government failure to enforce Title IX.
  • Disabilities Act

    Disabilities Act
    Equal education opportunities were expanded for disabled children.
  • A Nation at Risk: A Learning Crisis

    A Nation at Risk: A Learning Crisis
    President Ronald Reagan considered the school system consisting of low standards and a failure to strive for excellence. Reagan advocated higher standards for graduation and new courses in computer science.
  • Right to Choose Your School

    Right to Choose Your School
    Educational reformers piloted a school curriculum consisting of the best teachers to create alternative public programs in the academically poorest acheived west Harlem school district. By 1982, students were required to choose an alternative or classic educational program and any failing school would be closed and reopened under new administration.
  • Milwaukee Voucher Bill

    Milwaukee Voucher Bill
    President George Bush passed the Milwaukee Voucher Bill, one of the most controverial educational reforms, the country's first voucher legislation that permitted low income school students to attend private non-sectarian schools at the state's expense which was previously allocated for public school funding.
  • Homeschooling Begins

    Homeschooling Begins
    Religous groups help facilitate the ratification of homeschooling programs.
  • Core Knowledge Schools

    Core Knowledge Schools
    An equal opportunity curriculum. At first grade students are learning Greek and Asian myths.
  • Progressive Schools

    Progressive Schools
    Progressive schools teach children to master critical thinking skills by hands-on activities and project-based coursework.
  • "Choice"

    "Choice"
    New York city entitles parents to enroll their children in the school of their choice. However, the few alternative institutions and willing/able kids to switch to such schools created little competition. Nationwide this facilitated school competition of the finest caliber of education.
  • Business-run Schools

    Business-run Schools
    The city hired Education Alternatives Incorporated (EAI), a private business to operate the school system. EAI was accused of taking money from schools for profit as they reduced funding in art, music and special education services.
  • The End of EAI

    The End of EAI
    The experimential educational movement to privatize schools ended in Baltimore. The quality of education from EAI demonstrated equal academic success rates to public schools.
  • Milwaukee Voucher Program Conflict

    Milwaukee Voucher Program Conflict
    The voucher served over 1,500 students. Eventually religous groups would combat for financial support fom the U.S. government. Low income students from Cleveland Ohio were the first to use vouchers to attend religious schools.
  • Charter Schools

    Charter Schools
    A type of public school that exercises more freedom and are run by teachers where parents are highly involved.