The Congress of Racial Equity and the Freedom Rides

  • Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) is Formed

    CORE is founded by an interracial group of students in Chicago.
  • Morgan v. Virginia

    Morgan v. Virginia made it illegal for segregation in interstate transportation.
  • Journey of Reconciliation

    CORE helps organize the Journey of Reconciliation which was a concept where riders tested bus segregation in the South, but avoiding the Deep South. There was not much attention garnered from this as there wasn't any confrontation.
  • Boynton v. Virginia

    Boynton v. Virginia extends the Morgan v Virginia decision to include bus terminals, restrooms, and restaurants.
  • Freedom Rides Begin

    CORE organizes two buses with 13 freedom riders that leave Washington D.C. bound for New Orleans. After the bus left, they were met with resistance in Virginia, some facing arrest. Rock Hill, South Carolina is where they first experienced violence as two riders were beaten.
  • End of First Freedom Ride of 1960s

    Freedom Riders on the bus from Washington D.C. are met with a violent mob in Anniston, AL. The Ku Klux Klan was allowed to strike against the freedom fighters without repercussions from law enforcement. The riders were forced to leave the buses when a firebomb was thrown at them. The attacks continued in Birmingham, AL where the riders ended the campaign due to the danger and forcing the riders to fly to New Orleans.
  • Freedom Rides Resume

    A bus of ten freedom riders leaves Nashville for Birmingham, resuming the Freedom Rides. The riders were arrested for breaking the segregation laws upon arrival. Due to this, they ended up stranded in the city for a few days.
  • Kennedy Encourages ICC to Ban Segregation

    The Kennedy administration states that they have advised the ICC to ban segregation in all facilities within their jurisdiction. CORE continues the rides.
  • Interstate Commerce Commission Takes Control

    The Interstate Commerce Commission issues regulations enforcing the end of segregation in interstate transportation facilities.