The Common School

  • Pre-Revolutionary America

    Only in New England it was required by the law to build schools.
    Most schooling was closely linked to the Protestant Bible which was brought by early settlers to the New World.
  • Noah Webster published a textbook.

    Noah Webster published a textbook.
    Webster, a teacher in Conneticut, thought british textbooks need to be eliminated from school and published a textbook known as Blueback Speller; which strictly deals with the history of America and its inhabitants.
  • Thomas Jefferson

    Thomas Jefferson
    Thomas Jefferson claimed the need for education; people should be educated so that they can read and write to know the history of the United States as a citizen.
    He did not find it important for females to go to school; three years of schooling is enough to prepare for marriage. And He offered no education to slaves.
  • Horace Mann in Massachusetts

    Horace Mann in Massachusetts
    Horace Mann created board of education in Massachusetts.
    With the poor condition that many schools are in as well as the inadequacy of text material, he decided to make public schools better so that every one wants to attend.
  • Rise of Irish Catholics

    Rise of Irish Catholics
    By 1840, half of New York City residents were foreign born, and many were Irish Catholics.
    Since Mann's idea for schools were for Protestants, Bishop John Hughes demanded to support them building Catholic schools, which was denied by the state.
  • The creation of NYC Board of Education

    The creation of NYC Board of Education
    Two years after the Philadelphia Bible Riots, Public School Society was replaced by the New York City Board of Education; many Catholic children were enrolled.
  • Frederick Douglass

    Frederick Douglass
    A group of 90 African Americans led by Frederick Douglass, drew up a petition to the Boston School Committee, which called for an immediate end for segregation.
  • Segregation in the schools of Massachusetts ends

  • End of Civil War

    End of Civil War
    The Congress required states to guarantee in their constitution that they would offer a free, non-sectarian education to all children.
  • Period: to

    Public School Expenditure and Enrollment

    Expenditure: $63 million to $141 million
    Enrollment: 7.6 million to 12.7 million
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    Large imflux of immigrants

    Over 22 million immigratns, Russians, Polish, Jews, and Mexicans, came to the U.S..
  • Problem remains...

    Problem remains...
    Many native Americans were forced to go to government schools to abandon their customs, langauges, and dress.
  • Progressive Education

    Progressive Education
    John Dewy, later known as the father of Progressive Edcation, published a book called the School and Society.
    "The educational center of gravity has been too long in the teacher, the tectbook, anywhere and everywherre but activities of the child."
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    17-year-olds graduating high schools

    1900 - 6%
    1945 - 45%
  • Child Labor

    Child Labor
    Two million children were working - they went to school with being sick but no medical care.
  • Traditional Curriculum

    Traditional Curriculum
    After the allied victory in 1918, 35 states required instruction in English only and history couse that celebrated American heroes.
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    IQ based tracking

    By the 1930s, 2/3 of the Mexican-American students in LA were classified as slow learners and even mentally retarded on the bais of IQ tests given as early as kindergarten.
  • Graduation rate

    Graduation rate
    3 out of 5 students graduated in 1950, and 50% of them went on to college education.
  • Minority problems

    Minority problems
    African Americans were segregated by law in 17 states.
    Average schooling for Mexican-Americans was 5.4 years.
  • Brown v. the Board of Education of Topeka

    Brown v. the Board of Education of Topeka
    The end of 60 years of legalized segregation
  • National Defense Education Act

    National Defense Education Act
    Eisenhower signed the National Defense Education Act - $100 million were sent to aid public education per year.
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    Fight Against the IQ test

    Julian Nava fought to ban teh IQ test in LA.
  • Civil Right Act

    Civil Right Act
    Lyndon Johnson, elected as the president in 1963, passed the act in 1964 which banned discrimination on the basis of race or ethnicity in all federally funded programs most notably public schools.
    8 years after the Act, 91% of southern black children would attend integrated schools.
  • Elementary and Secondary Education Act

    Elementary and Secondary Education Act
    $4 billion aid to disadvantaged students.
  • Mexican Americans in Texas

    Mexican Americans in Texas
    In Texas, Mexican-Americans' drop out rate by 8th grade was 75%.
  • Graduation rate

    Graduation rate
    By the 1980s almost entire children were enrolled to the schools and 85% of them graduated from high schools and majority of them went on to the college education.
  • Voucher legislature in Wisconsin

    Voucher legislature in Wisconsin
    Wisconsin passed the country's first voucher legislation.
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    Charter School

    Charter schools are the new form of public school that is the same as traditional public schools in that they are open to everyone - they are not private, they don't have admissions criteria, and they often are run by teachers and parents are heaviliy involved
  • Home Schooling

    Home Schooling
    By late 1990s the Christian Right had led a successful campaign to make home schooling legal in all 50 states.
    (2000-2001) Students Schooled at Home = 2.5%
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    Home Schooling

    By late 1990s the Christian Right had led a successful campaign to make home schooling legal in all 50 states.
    (2000-2001) Students Schooled at Home = 2.5%