The Baroque Period (1600-1730)

  • 1567

    Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643)

    Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643)
    Trained in the Renaissance style, but adept in composing in the Baroque style. Used dissonance for text expression. Seconda prattica: monody with dissonance. Had many works, and aided in the switch from Renaissance to Baroque.
  • Francesca Caccini (1587-c.1641)

    Francesca Caccini (1587-c.1641)
    Soprano and the daughter of Giulio Caccini. She was the first woman to compose operas. Sang lead roles in several early operas when she was young. She was the highest paid musica in Italy by the time she was 20. Highly praised for her voice and her skills on the harpsicord.
  • Dafne

    First opera composed by Giulio Caccini and Jacopo Peri.
  • Euridice

    The first extant opera, written by Giulio Caccini and Jacopo Peri.
  • Period: to

    Early Baroque

    Along with a new era, came new values. Filled with extravagant and bizarre qualities in this music. Texture and form were more free than in the renaissance. Polyphony and homophony were of equal importance. Tuning system changes with equal temperament. Used Monody and basso continuo.
  • Barbara Strozzi (1619-1677)

    Barbara Strozzi (1619-1677)
    Born in Venice, she was adopted by Giulio Strozzi because her mother was a servant. Studied under Francesco Cavalli at the Accademia degli Unisoni, which was founded for her. Published eight sets of songs, each set dedicated to a wealthy patron. Used poets as writers for her songs, with most of the poems written for her. She did not write opera, but her songs and cantatas were very dramatic.
  • Teatro de San Cassiano

    Teatro de San Cassiano
    The first public opera theater opened in Venice. This adds to the popularity of opera as a gathering, attracting all classes to come sit and have a party or picnic while the actors put on a show.
  • King Louis XIV (1638-1715)

    King Louis XIV (1638-1715)
    French royalty. Very accomplished ballet dancer. His legs are featured in all of his paintings. Expected parts to be written for him every time something was written in France.
  • Aria

    The most desired and appreciated pieces. An extended piece for a solo singer that has more elaboration. Steady beat, more song like, and formally structured. The primary accompaniment was basso continuo. Most important compose was Claudio Monteverdi.
  • Heinrich Ignaz Franz von Biber (1644-1704)

    Heinrich Ignaz Franz von Biber (1644-1704)
    Bohemian-Austrian composer and violinist. One of the most important composers for the violin. Wrote Catholic sacred music, violin sonatas, and ensemble music. Normalized the higher positions and double stops.
  • Period: to

    Middle Baroque

    Rise of Cantatas. Secular and in Italian, composed for one or two singers with basso continuo and possibly a small string ensemble. Texts often about love, and meant as entertainment. Sonatas were written for church and chamber. There was a rise of Concerto work too, fearuring cadenzas at the end of each "movement".
  • Henry Purcell (1659-1695)

    Henry Purcell (1659-1695)
    Worked in the court of Charles II. Singer, organist, and composer of instrumental and vocal music. Used the musical styles of Europe: Italian operatic, grant French, lyric English.
  • Unbanning of Stage Plays in England

    Unbanning of Stage Plays in England
    In August 1660, Charles II issued patents for play companies to perform. During the commonwealth, stage plays were banned by the Puritans because of a fear of the devil.
  • Alessandro Scarlatti (1660-1725)

    Alessandro Scarlatti (1660-1725)
    Father of Domenico Scarlatti. Teacher in Naples, many of his students helped create the new classical style. His death marks the end of the Baroque period.
  • Antonio Vivaldi (1678-1741)

    Antonio Vivaldi (1678-1741)
    Music director at the Pieta, an orphanage for girls in Venice. Composed many operas, a lot of sacred music, and many instrumental works. Was really popular in the 1720s. The master of the concerto, he wrote 800 of them. Wrote Programmatic Music, like a poem or play. Wrote for the orphans and would write pieces anyone could play.
  • Georg Philip Telemann (1681-1767)

    Georg Philip Telemann (1681-1767)
    German composer. One of the main staples at the time. Composed more than 125 orchestral suites. Was immensely popular wherever he went and got jobs insanely quick.
  • Jean-Joseph Mouret (1682-1738)

    Jean-Joseph Mouret (1682-1738)
    A representative composer from the French court, served the son of King Louis XIV. Composed operas, suites, and "grand divertissements [entertainments]". Some of his works have been used for TV commercials and other media.
  • Jean-Philippe Rameau (1683-1764)

    Jean-Philippe Rameau (1683-1764)
    French composer and theorist. Tried to establish a rational foundation for harmonic practice. "Treatise of Harmony" (1722) the beginning of the ideas of modern music theory.
  • Domenico Scarlatti (1685-1757)

    Domenico Scarlatti (1685-1757)
    Keyboard virtuoso who served Portuguese and Spanish royal families. He had a progressive style, aware of his modern flare. Wrote over 500 sonatas for harpsichord, operas, cantatas, and keyboard exercises.
  • G.F. Handel (1685-1759)

    G.F. Handel (1685-1759)
    German composer living in England writing Italian music. Wrote in Italian early in his career. 1720: Appointed as one of the music directors at the Royal Academy of Music (London). 1727: Became a naturalized British subject. Virtuoso organist who was extraordinarily trained in counterpoint.
  • J. S. Bach (1685-1750)

    J. S. Bach (1685-1750)
    German organ virtuoso. THE master of the fugue. He was one of the most skilled musicians to ever live. Wrote most of his works just because he could. Wrote a ridiculous amount of music. Was rejected from jobs because he was "not the best" composer. He made barely any money in Leipzig. He wrote at least 200 cantatas. Composed over 1000 works alone.
  • Period: to

    Late Baroque

    The most popular period of Baroque. Most of Bach's works are in this period. Passacaglia: Baroque form that draws upon ground bass, usually in triple meter and 4 to 8 measures long. Chaconne: Related to passacaglia, except the progression is repeated instead of the actual melody. Fugue: form and a genre, there is a subject that is repeated in all voices, countersubjects and alterations make up the rest of the fugue. Baroque oratorio: large scale dramatic genre that is usually biblical in nature.
  • Franz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809)

    Franz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809)
    The primary mover of the new classical concerning instrumental music.