The Baroque Era (1590-1730)

  • Period: 1567 to

    Claudio Monteverdi

    Monteverdi was trained in the Renaissance style, but adapted at composing "modern" music. He has 9 books of Madrigals. He also wrote masses, magnificants, vespers, motets, and operas. In 1590 he became the court composer for the Duke of Mantua, but later became the choirmaster at St. Mark's Cathedral in Venice
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    Girolamo Frescobaldi

    Frescobaldi was the finest Organist during the Early Baroque time. He worked at St. Peter's Cathedral and was a big influence on Bach.
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    Francesca Caccini

    Francesca was the first woman to compose operas. She sang many lead roles when she was as young as 13. By 20 she was the highest paid musican in Italy
  • Basso Continuo

    Basso Continuo is also know as figured bass. This method of writing became very popular in the Baroque era, as it provided harmonic structure.
  • Tuning System Change

    During the Baroque era, the tuning system improved. All half steps were an equal distance apart. Composers would limit their music to four sharps/flats.
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    Early Baroque

    The Baroque Era brought lots of improvements to music. Each chord finally had its own function. Rhythms also became more definite and regular. The functional harmony established major/minor tonality systems and a tonic that most people understood.
  • Dafne

    This was the first opera. It was composed by Giulio Caccini and Jacopo Peri.
  • Jamestown

    The first colony settled in America. They settled in what we now know as Virginia.
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    The Thirty Year War

    The Thirty Year War was a struggle between the Protestants and the Catholics. This war began when the Protestants revolted againts the Holy Roman Empire. Though this war started as a religous dispute, it ended as just a fight for power.
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    Barbara Strozzi

    Strozzi studied under Francesco Cavalli at the Accademia degli Unisoni. She published 8 sets of songs, each set dedicated to a different wealthy patron (except for 1 book of madrigals and 1 book of cantatas).
  • La Liberazione di Ruggiero dall'isola di Alcina

    This was a ballet writen by Francesca Caccini. It contained all the elements of an opera and a dancing section.
  • Opera

    Opera became more popular during the Baroque Era. This is because The first public opera theater opened in Venice in 1637. This allowed more than just the higher class to see operas, however, the higher class would sit in the seats, while the lower class would stand in the pit. An opera consists of a Recitative, Aria, choruses, short instrumental pieces for transitions, and beginning pieces.
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    Louis the 14th of France

    The king was a very good ballet dancer. He influenced music because most compsers would make sure there was a section in their work dedicated to dancing, so that the king could dance. Because he was a dancer, there isn't a single painting of him twhere he isnt showing off his legs.
  • Arias

    An Aria is an extended piece for a solo singer. Compared to a recit, it's more song-like, has a steady beat and tempo, and is formally structured. Arias became very popular during this time.
  • The Coronation of Poppea

    This was the last opera that Monteverdi composed before he died. It was based on mythology. The Roman Emperor, Nero and Poppea are in love with each other, but are both in relationships. Nero banishes Poppea's Husband and divorces and executes his wife so that him and Poppea can be together. The characters in this opera are spread across the social ladder. This premierd in Venice.
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    Heinrich Ignaz Franz von Biber

    Biber was a Bohemian-Austrian composer and violinist. He compsed Catholic sacred music, violin sonatas, and ensemble music. He creeated a violin technique that allowed him to easily reach 6th and 7th positions, play double stops, and experiment with scordatura.
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    Middle Baroque

    During the mid-Baroque time, Sonata da camera and Sonata da chiesa became more popular. A Sonata da camera is usually a group of stylized dances. A Sonata da chiesa is more serious and has four movements (S F S F).
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    Arcangelo Corelli

    Corelli was the master of trio sonata (two treble lines and basso continuo).
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    Henry Purcell

    Purcell worked in the court of Charles II when state plays were allowed. He was also a singer, organist, and composer. His music had an Italian operatic style, grand aspects of French music, and the lyric melodic quality of English song.
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    Alessandro Scarlatti

    Alessandro Scarlatti was Domenico's father. He was a teacher in Naples. His death marks the end of the Baroque Era
  • A New King

    As King Louis XIV became king, England became a monarchy once more
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    Elisabeth-Claude Jacquet de la Guerre

    Guerre was a suite composer. She was called "the wonder of our century".
  • Telescope

    Isaac Newton created his first telescope in 1668. It's quite interesting to see how other subjects are evolving during these times.
  • Biber: Sonata No. 1

    This is a Mid-Baroque violin sonata written by Biber. The melodic line allows lots of expression from the soloist. Basso Continuo can also be seen in this piece.
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    Antonio Vivaldi

    Vivaldi was know as the red priest because of his red hair. He was the music director at the Pieta. He composed many operas, sacred music, and instrumental works. He wrote nearly 800 concertos. He's considered the greatest master of the Baroque concerto.
  • Salem Witch Trials

    Men and women were told to be performing witchcraft, and were burned outside of Salem
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    George Philip Telemann

    Telemann helped establish the french-style orchestral suite in Germany. He was also friends with J. S. Bach and the godfather of Bach's oldest son, Carl Philipp Emanuel.
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    Jean-Joseph Mouret

    Mouret served the son of King Louis XIV. He composed opera, suites, adn "grand divertissements". Some of his works have been used today on TV.
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    Domenico Scarlatti

    Scarlatti was a keyboard virtuoso. He had a progressive style and wrote over 500 sonatas for harpsichord, operas, cantatas, and keyboard exercises.
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    Johann Sebastian Bach

    Bach was known as the greatest master of the fugue. A fugue is both a form and a genre thats based on the principle of imitation. He wrote over 200 sacred cantatas, 20 secular cantatas, and plenty other pieces. Bach's most important fugal contribution was "Well-Tempered Clavier". This was a collection of preludes and fugues issued in two volumes. He was working on another collection called "The Art of Fugue", but he died before he could finish it.
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    Handel was a very important composer. He understood the Baroque musical style and the newer Galant style. He was trained in counterpoint as well. When he composed Italian opera, his audience grew bored of his music. To please the people, he wrote more english operas.
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    Late Baroque

    The Baroque Era ends with the death of Alessandro Scarlatti
  • Water Music

    Written by Handel, this piece was performed for a royal party on the Thames river. In the first performance of this song, the harpsichord was not used, as it couldn't fit on the barge. This piece is in Ternary (ABA) form.
  • Le Quattro Stagioni

    Translating to The four seasons, this is a cycle of four violin concertos. They're named "La primavera" (spring), "L'estate" (summer), "L'autunno" (autumn), and "L'inverno" (winter).