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Music History

  • 597

    Gregorian chant

    Gregorian chant
    It is a prayer in the form of a song whose function is to worship God, implore his mercy, thank him for his favors and beg for his help. It is religious vocal music that is sung a cappella, that is, without instrumental accompaniment.
  • 991

    Guido d’Arezzo

    Guido d’Arezzo
    He studied at the Benedictine abbey of Pomposa. Settled in Arezzo in 1025, he was in charge of teaching the cathedral singers.
    He perfected musical writing with the incorporation of the tetragram, which was a musical pattern of four horizontal lines, a precursor to the staff, with which the pitches of sound were set more precisely, a system similar to the current one, as well as pneumatic notation. He wrote a book called Micrologus which was very famous in his period
  • 1098

    Hildergard von Bingen

    Hildergard von Bingen
    Hildegard was born in Germany and gave music and praise singing in particular an active role in the history of humanity, stating that singing is a mediating practice through which human beings make divinity present, and at the same time renew their own Edenic condition. One of her most famous plays was Ordo virtutum. She discovered the femenin orgasm as a saint
  • 1135

    Bernart de Ventadorn

    Bernart de Ventadorn
    He was born in Moustier-Ventadour (France).
    Bernart is often credited with being the most important influence on the development of the troubadour tradition in northern France, since he was well known there, his melodies circulated widely, and early troubadour composers appear to have imitated him.Describió la glucogénesis hepática en perros alimentados con proteínas y azúcares, aislando del hígado el glicógeno y obervando la hiperglicemia después de la punción del cuarto ventrículo.
  • 1150


    Leonin was a French composer that lived in the 12th century. He was a monk at Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris, where he worked on developing a new form of music called organum.
    This type of music was an innovation in his time, because he used a music writing technique in which two or more voices move at different speeds, thus creating a harmony effect. Leonin is known for having created the Magnus Liber Organi, a collection of organum pieces that remains highly influential in classical music.
  • 1160


    He was born in Paris (France), was a european composer, believed to be French, who lived around the end of the 12th century and the beginning of the 13th century. He was the most famous member of the Notre Dame school of polyphony and the Ars Antiqua style.
    Pérotin composed organa, the first type of polyphonic music; Previous European music, such as Gregorian and other types of chant, had been monophonic. Before Perotin, organum usually consisted of two voices: organum duplum.
  • 1221

    Alfonso X el Sabio

    Alfonso X el Sabio
    King of Castile. His reign stood out for a policy of collaboration between the three cultures of medieval Spain: Hebrew, Arab and Christian. "He was born in Toledo, in 1221, and died in Seville, in 1284.
    If the importance of King Sabio in the process of "normalization" of written Castilian has always been highlighted, it is because during the reign of Alfonso long transformation of Spanish.
  • Period: 1240 to 1320

    Ars Antiqua

    The influence of the Notre Dame school gave rise to a polyphonic style, developed mainly in France, but spread throughout Western Europe throughout the 13th century, which later became known by the Latin name of Ars Antiqua.
    The motet, which constitutes the great invention of this school. It is a song for two or three voices of a contrapuntal nature. It has the peculiarity that each independent voice has a different text and a different rhythm, making it a very lively and contrasting music.
  • 1300

    Guillaume de Machaut

    Guillaume de Machaut
    French musician and poet. Belonging to the Order of Reims, he was secretary and advisor to the King of Bohemia, John of Luxembourg, until he was assassinated. He then passed into the service of Bonne of Luxembourg and that of Charles II of Navarre, to finally enter the service of the future king of France, Charles V the Wise. He ended his days as canon of Reims Cathedral, an important cultural focus in the late Middle Ages.
  • Period: 1320 to 1400

    Ars Nova

    Ars Nova music focuses and shines on the aspect of polyphony, that is, when various voices or melodic lines sound and flow musically, creating rhythmic and melodic movement.
    In the Ars Nova, medieval polyphony reached its maximum perfection. Some composers, in addition to Vitry, who were notable during this period were Guillaume de Machaut and Francesco Landini, who also contributed to the development of polyphony.
  • 1325

    Francesco Landini

    Francesco Landini
    Was an Italian composer, organist, singer, poet, instrument maker and astrologer. He was one of the most famous and revered composers of the second half of the 14th century and the most famous composer in Italy.
    Landini was the most important musician of the Italian trecento, a style also known as Italian Ars Nova. He composed religious works, only secular works have survived: 89 ballate for two voices, 42 ballate for three voices and another 9 of which we have versions for two and three voices.
  • 1400

    Johaness Gutenberg

    Johaness Gutenberg
    Johannes Gutenberg was a German inventor who created the printing press with movable metal type and caused books to be mass produced. Gutenberg's choice to print the Bible was not an obvious decision, since the complete religious book was not central to the daily life of the Church in the 15th century.
    Before revolutionizing printing, Johann Gutenberg worked as a blacksmith in the bishopric of Mainz, since he knew the art of casting the most precious metal: gold. This was useful for him lately.
  • 1469

    Juan del Encina

    Juan del Encina
    Spanish poet, musician and playwright. The son of a craftsman, he entered the cathedral of Salamanca as a choir boy and later entered the service of the brother of the Duke of Alba, who financed his studies for a bachelor's degree in law at the University of Salamanca, where he probably had Antonio as a teacher. de Nebrija. At the ducal court he presented his first poetic and musical compositions, of a festive nature, with great success.
  • 1483

    Martín Lutero

    Martín Lutero
    German theologian. The sharp criticism that Martin Luther directed at the moral dissipation of the Roman Church, focused at first on the bull trade, earned him a quick excommunication 1520,but also made him the visible head of the Reformation,a religious movement that rejected authority of the Papacy and aspired to a return to primitive spirituality.Going against the will of his parents,Martin Luther became an Augustinian monk in 1505 and began studying theology he received his doctorate (1512).
  • 1500

    Cristóbal de Morales

    Cristóbal de Morales
    He received musical education from Pedro Fernández , chapel master of the Seville cathedral. He achieved a perfect knowledge in the liberal arts of the trivium and the quadrivium; The reading, in some of his compositions, of dedications written in Latin is surprising due to the mastery of the style and the insightful assimilation of Ciceronian prose. In 1526 he was appointed chapelmaster at the oldest cathedral in Spain, Ávila. The documents in the Vatican archives preserve his memory.
  • 1510

    Antonio de Cabezón

    Antonio de Cabezón
    Composer and organist considered the best instrumentalist of his time. He was a chamber musician for Charles I and Philip II." He was born in Castrillo Matajudíos (Burgos), in 1510. Despite his premature blindness, at the age of 16 he was organist in the Royal Chapel of Charles I, for whom he also became a chamber musician. camera.
    The works of music for keyboard, harp and vihuela by Antonio de Cabezón, published in Madrid in 1578, by his son Hernando de Cabezón.
  • 1510

    Andrea Gabrieli

    Andrea Gabrieli
    He was born in Venice, and was a student of Adrian Willaert at St. Mark's Basilica. It is known that he was organist at Cannaregio in 1557, a time in which he competed, this time unsuccessfully, for the position of organist at St. Mark's. In 1562 he was in Germany, where he visited Frankfurt am Main and Munich, and met Orlando di Lasso and became friends. In 1566 he finally obtained the position of organist at St. Mark's Basilica, one of the most prestigious musical positions in northern Italy.
  • 1525

    Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina

    Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina
    Palestrina is seen as the most representative author of polyphonic works adjusted to the new demands of the Counter-Reformation. His works from those years stand out for the clarity achieved, leaving the melody in the hands of the upper voice and precisely adjusting the rhythm of the speech.
    He had a lasting influence on the development of church and secular music in Europe, especially the development of counterpoint, and his work is considered the culmination of Renaissance polyphony.
  • 1532

    Orlando di Lasso

    Orlando di Lasso
    He was born in Mons (Belgium).
    Franco-Flemish composer. His name completes the great triad of polyphonic music of the 16th century, of which Palestrina and Tomás Luis de Victoria are also part. A prolific and versatile author, he left a production that exceeds two thousand compositions and that includes all the genres of his time, both secular and sacred, from the mass to the secular chanson in several languages, including the Latin motet, hymns, madrigals and villanescas.
  • 1544

    Maddalena Casulana

    Maddalena Casulana
    Maddalena Casulana was born in Italy (1544 – 1590). She was an Italian Renaissance composer and singer who played the lute. She is very important because she was the first woman composer to have music printed and published in the history of Western music.
    Her works were mainly madrigals, which were compositions for 3 to 6 voices, usually to be sung a cappella (without music) or with musical accompaniment. They were brief and usually dealt with love themes.
  • 1548

    Tomás Luis de Victoria

    Tomás Luis de Victoria
    He was born in Ávila, in 1548. In 1558, he became a boy singer at the Ávila Cathedral. There he began his musical studies in plainchant theory, counterpoint and composition. In 1557 he entered the Collegium Germanicum in Rome, where he received lessons from Palestrina. He succeeded Palestrina as chapelmaster of San Apollinario. Later on, he was ordained a priest. In Madrid he served as chaplain and teacher of the Barefoot Poor Clares choir. He only composed sacred music. He died in Madrid,1611.
  • 1557

    Giovanni Gabrieli

    Giovanni Gabrieli
    Between 1575 and 1579 he was in Munich as assistant to Orlando di Lasso. His first printed composition appears, in fact, in the Secondo libro de 'madrigali a 5 voci de' floridi virtuosi del Serenissimo Duca di Baviera (1575). In 1584 he became second organist of St. Mark's in Venice, succeeding his uncle, who had been appointed first organist; Upon his death he succeeded him in office, maintaining it throughout his life.In 1587 he began publishing his uncle's music in several volumes.
  • 1560

    Carlo Gesualdo

    Carlo Gesualdo
    Italian composer and lutenist. The little-documented life of Carlo Gesualdo has entered the realms of legend, to the point of becoming a source of operatic inspiration for contemporary composers such as Franz Hummel and Alfred Schnittke. The murder in 1590 of his wife and her lover, whom he caught red-handed, gave him an aura of a dark character that her music, dissonant, expressive and unusually modern, has only increased.
    Prince of Venosa and count of Conza.
  • 1567

    Claudio Monteverdi

    Claudio Monteverdi
    Italian composer. The figure that best exemplifies the transition in the field of music between Renaissance aesthetics and the new baroque expressiveness is that of Monteverdi from Cremon. Educated in the polyphonic tradition of Tomás Luis de Victoria, Orlando di Lasso and Palestrina, this musician knew how to make the new and revolutionary conception of musical art a reality that arose from the theories of the Camerata Fiorentina, which, among other things, marked the birth of the Opera.
  • Giacomo Carissimi

    Giacomo Carissimi
    Italian composer who stood out in the creation of oratorios, cantatas and other religious pieces that denote an original and innovative style, far from the tradition of sacred polyphony established by Palestrina.
    Giacomo Carissimi began his musical career as a singer and organist. In 1627 he was appointed choirmaster in Assisi, and from 1628 until his death he served as chapel master in the church of San Apollinaris, in Rome.
    Of his abundant musical work, the oratorio Jephthé (1656)
  • Barbara Strozzi

    Barbara Strozzi
    She was an Italian Baroque singer and composer. During her lifetime, she published eight volumes of her own music and had more secular music in print than any other composer of the time. This was accomplished without any support from the Catholic Church and without the constant patronage of the nobility. Strozzi's life and career have been overshadowed by claims that she was a courtesan, as at the time female music was assumed to be an intellectual asset of a courtesan.
  • Stradivarius

    Italian luthier. Better known by the Latinized form of his name, Stradivarius, he is undoubtedly the most famous maker of string instruments in the history of music. A disciple of another famous luthier, Niccolò Amati, from 1665 he began to work on his own, founding his own workshop in 1680. He then designed and began to manufacture narrower and more elongated violins, features that would become progressively accentuated over the years. These proportions favored a more penetrating tone.
  • Henry Purcell

    Henry Purcell
    English composer. He joined the Chapel Royal choir when he was barely eight years old and had John Blow and Matthew Locke as teachers. In 1677 he was appointed composer of the king's violins, and in 1679 he replaced Blow as organist of Westminster Abbey. He was in charge of the restoration of court instruments, as well as the composition of numerous works of a religious nature, among which some anthems and services such as I was glad, in the middle of life (1682),.
  • Antonio Vivaldi

    Antonio Vivaldi
    Italian composer and violinist whose abundant concert work exerted a determining influence on the historical evolution that led to the consolidation of the symphony. Igor Stravinsky once commented that Vivaldi had never written five hundred concertos, but rather "five hundred times the same concerto." It is still true regarding the original and unmistakable tone that the Venetian composer knew how to give to his music and that makes it quickly recognizable.
  • George Philipp Telemann

    George Philipp Telemann
    German composer. He abandoned the law career that he had started in Leipzig to dedicate himself to music when, in 1701, he was asked to compose two monthly cantatas for the church of Saint Thomas. The following year he founded the Collegium musicum and was appointed director of the Leipzig Opera. From then on he began an active career that led him to occupy numerous prestigious musical positions and to devote himself to incessant work composing works of all genres.
  • Johann Sebastian Bach

    Johann Sebastian Bach
    German composer. Considered by many to be the greatest composer of all time, Johann Sebastian Bach was born into a dynasty of musicians and performers who played a determining role in German music for nearly two centuries and whose first documented mention dates back to 1561. .
    Son of Johann Ambrosius, trumpeter at the court of Eisenach and director of the musicians of that city, music surrounded Johann Sebastian Bach from the beginning of his days.
  • Georg Friedrich Händel

    Georg Friedrich Händel
    German composer naturalized English. A strict contemporary of Johann Sebastian Bach (although two composers could hardly be found more opposite in terms of style and aspirations), Handel represents not only one of the peaks of the Baroque era, but also of music of all time. A prolific musician like few others, his production covers all the genres of his time, with a special predilection for opera and oratorio, which, with his contribution, he helped bring to a stage of great splendor.
  • Gluck

    He was a German composer from Bohemia (Czech Republic).
    He is considered one of the best classical opera composers.
    Among his most valued works are Orfeo ed Euridice (1762) and Alceste (1767), premiered in Vienna, and Iphigénie in Aulis (1774), Armide (1777) and Iphigénie en Táuride (1779) premiered at the Paris Opera.
    He maintained a rivalry with the Italian composer Niccolò Piccinni known as the Grievance of Gluckists and Piccinnists.QQ
    He died in decembre 1787.
  • Joseph Haydn

    Joseph Haydn
    Known as Joseph Haydn, he was an Austrian composer. He is one of the greatest representatives of the Classical period, in addition to being known as the "father of the symphony" and the "father of the string quartet" thanks to his important contributions to both genres. He also contributed to the instrumental development of the piano trio.
    He died in may 1809
  • Nannerl Mozart

    Nannerl Mozart
    Maria Anna Mozart was born in Salzburg. When she was seven years old, her father Leopold Mozart started teaching her to play the harpsichord. Leopold took her and Wolfgang on tours of many cities, such as Vienna and Paris, to showcase their talents. In the early days, she sometimes received top billing, and she was noted as an excellent harpsichord player and fortepianist.
    She died in octobre 1829.
  • Wolfang ``Amadeus´´ Mozart

    Wolfang ``Amadeus´´ Mozart
    Mozart He was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical period. Despite his short life, his rapid pace of composition resulted in more than 800 works of virtually every Western classical genre of his time. Many of these compositions are recognized as pinnacles of the symphonic, concertante, chamber, operatic, and choral repertoire.
    He died in decembre 1791.
  • María Theresia Von Paradis

    María Theresia Von Paradis
    Maria Theresia von Paradis was an Austrian musician and composer who lost her sight at an early age, and for whom her close friend Mozart may have written his Piano Concerto No. 18 in B-flat major. She was also in contact with Salieri, Haydn, and Gluck. She died the first of February 1824
  • Ludwig Van Bethoveen

    Ludwig Van Bethoveen
    Bethoveen was a German composer and pianist. He is one of the most revered figures in the history of Western music; his works rank among the most performed of the classical music repertoire and span the transition from the Classical period to the Romantic era in classical music. Beethoven's career has conventionally been divided into early, middle, and late periods.
    He died the 26 of March 1827
  • Rossini

    Rossini was an Italian composer who gained fame for his 39 operas, although he also wrote many songs, some pieces of chamber and piano music and some sacred music. He set new standards for both comic and serious opera before retiring from large-scale composition when he was still in his thirties, at the height of his popularity.
  • Schubert

    Franz Schubert was an Austrian composer of the late Classical and early Romantic eras. Despite his short life, Schubert left behind a vast oeuvre, including more than 600 secular vocal works (mainly lieder), seven complete symphonies, sacred music, operas, incidental music, and a large body of piano and chamber music. His major works include the art songs Erlkönig, Gretchen am Spinnrade,
    He died the 19 of november 1828
  • Berlioz

    Louis-Hector Berlioz was a French Romantic composer and conductor. His output includes orchestral works such as the Symphonie fantastique and Harold in Italy, choral pieces including the Requiem and L'Enfance du Christ, his three operas Benvenuto Cellini, Les Troyens and Béatrice et Bénédict, and works of hybrid genres such as the "dramatic symphony" Roméo et Juliette and the "dramatic legend" La Damnation de Faust.
  • Mendelssohn

    Felix Mendelssohn was a German composer, pianist, organist and conductor of the early Romantic period. Mendelssohn's compositions include symphonies, concertos, piano music, organ music and chamber music. His best-known works include the overture and incidental music for A Midsummer Night's Dream.
    He died the 4 of novembre 1847
  • Schumann

    Schumann was a German composer, pianist, and influential music critic. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest composers of the Romantic era. Schumann left the study of law, intending to pursue a career as a virtuoso pianist. His teacher, Friedrich Wieck, a German pianist, had assured him that he could become the finest pianist in Europe, but a hand injury ended this dream. Schumann then focused his musical energies on composing.
  • Chopin

    Frédéric Chopin was a Polish composer and virtuoso pianist of the Romantic period, who wrote primarily for solo piano. He has maintained worldwide renown as a leading musician of his era, one whose "poetic genius was based on a professional technique that was without equal in his generation
    He died the first of March 1810.
  • Liszt

    Franz Liszt was a Hungarian composer, virtuoso pianist, conductor, and teacher of the Romantic period. With a diverse body of work spanning more than six decades, he is considered to be one of the most prolific and influential composers of his era, and his piano works continue to be widely performed and recorded.
  • Verdi

    Giuseppe Verdi was an Italian composer best known for his operas. He was born near Busseto to a provincial family of moderate means, receiving a musical education with the help of a local patron, Antonio Barezzi. Verdi came to dominate the Italian opera scene after the era of Gioachino Rossini, Vincenzo Bellini, and Gaetano Donizetti, whose works significantly influenced him.
  • Wagner

    Richard Wagner was a German composer, theatre director, polemicist, and conductor who is chiefly known for his operas (or, as some of his mature works were later known, "music dramas"). Unlike most opera composers, Wagner wrote both the libretto and the music for each of his stage works. Initially establishing his reputation as a composer of works in the romantic vein of Carl Maria von Weber and Giacomo Meyerbeer, Wagner revolutionised opera through his concept of the Gesamtkunstwerk.
  • Clara Schumann

    Clara Schumann
    German pianist and composer, wife of the German composer and pianist Robert Schumann. Professor at the Frankfurt Conservatory from 1872-1892 and an excellent interpreter of Beethoven, Frédéric Chopin, Franz Liszt and Schumann himself, she directed the edition of her husband's works.Trained by her father,the prominent piano teacher Friedrich Wieck, then she debuted as a child prodigy with the Leipzig Gewandhaus Orchestra and then toured for two years.In 1835 she fell in love with Robert Schumann.
  • Smetana

    Czech composer and conductor. Although historically the territories that make up Bohemia have given great names to music, Smetana was the first who knew how to express in his works the spirit, the essence and the desires of his homeland. In this sense, he should be considered the father of the Czech nationalist musical school, whose imprint would be decisive on the authors who followed him, including Dvorak and Janacek.
  • Brahms

    Johannes Brahms was a German composer, pianist, and conductor of the mid-Romantic period. Born in Hamburg into a Lutheran family, he spent much of his professional life in Vienna. He is sometimes grouped with Johann Sebastian Bach and Ludwig van Beethoven as one of the "Three Bs" of music, a comment originally made by the nineteenth-century conductor Hans von Bülow. Brahms composed for symphony orchestra, chamber ensembles, piano, organ, voice, and chorus.
  • Modest Mussorgsky.

    Modest Mussorgsky.
    Russian composer. The Russian musical school had its greatest exponents in the members of the so-called Group of Five. He was the one who best knew how to reflect the soul of the Russian people, despite the profound shortcomings of his technical preparation. A self-taught musician, many of his works remained unfinished due to lack of knowledge of the composer's craft, but despite this they revealed a talent and originality that would exert a profound influence on later authors.
  • Chaikovski

    Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky was a Russian composer of the Romantic period. He was the first Russian composer whose music would make a lasting impression internationally. Tchaikovsky wrote some of the most popular concert and theatrical music in the current classical repertoire, including the ballets Swan Lake and The Nutcracker, the 1812 Overture, his First Piano Concerto, Violin Concerto, the Romeo and Juliet Overture-Fantasy, several symphonies, and the opera Eugene Onegin.
  • Edward Grieg

    Edward Grieg
    Norwegian composer considered the main representative of nationalist music in his country. Edvard Grieg began his musical training with his mother, Gesine Judith Grieg, who was a pianist and had studied with Albert Methfessel in Hamburg. In 1858 an event relevant to the musical training of the Norwegian composer took place: a friend of the Griegs, the composer and violinist Ole Bull, paid them a visit during which he heard the young Edvard play the piano.
  • Rimski Korsakov

    Rimski Korsakov
    Russian composer and conductor. Between 1856 and 1862 he studied at the Saint Petersburg Navy School, while also training musically. In 1859 he began to study piano with F. A. Canille, who encouraged him to compose and introduced him to Mily Balakirev and Cesar Cui. Together with these two, as well as with Borodin and Mussorgsky, he formed the group of innovators of the Five. In 1871, while still a naval officer, he was appointed professor at the Saint Petersburg Conservatory, until his death.
  • Antonín Dvořák

    Antonín Dvořák
    Czech composer. The son of an innkeeper, since he was a child he showed a disposition for music. He began his studies in Zlonice in 1853 and continued them in Prague during the period 1857-59. He then played the viola in an orchestra until 1871. At the same time he undertook his activity as a composer. The first success achieved in this area was a Hymn with a text by Viteslav Hálek (1873). Thanks to this work he obtained the position of organist of the church of San Etelber
  • Puccini

    Giacomo Puccini was an Italian composer known primarily for his operas. Regarded as the greatest[2] and most successful proponent of Italian opera after Verdi, he was descended from a long line of composers, stemming from the late-Baroque era. Though his early work was firmly rooted in traditional late-19th-century Romantic Italian opera, he later developed his work in the realistic verismo style, of which he became one of the leading exponents.
  • Hugo Wolf

    Hugo Wolf
    Hugo Wolf was an Austrian composer, particularly noted for his art songs, or Lieder. He brought to this form a concentrated expressive intensity which was unique in late Romantic music, somewhat related to that of the Second Viennese School in concision but diverging greatly in technique.
  • Gustav Mahler

    Gustav Mahler
    Gustav Mahler was an Austro-Bohemian Romantic composer, and one of the leading conductors of his generation. As a composer he acted as a bridge between the 19th-century Austro-German tradition and the modernism of the early 20th century. While in his lifetime his status as a conductor was established beyond question, his own music gained wide popularity only after periods of relative neglect, which included a ban on its performance in much of Europe during the Nazi era.
  • Claude Debussy

    Claude Debussy
    French composer. Initiator and maximum representative of the so-called musical impressionism,his harmonic innovations paved the way for the new musical trends of the 20th century. Already in his childhood he had begun the study of the plane in his home. However, he was not thinking about a musical career then. It was a former disciple of Chopin,Mrs. Manté de Fleurville,who sensed the boy's vocation and induced her family to cultivate it. In this way, Debussy entered the Paris Conservatory (1873)
  • Jean Sibelius

    Jean Sibelius
    Finnish composer,initiator of the modern school of musical composition in his country. Orphaned by his father since he was three years old, he belonged to a family of Swedish descent, so this language was spoken in his home.He later learned Finnish at school and became more deeply interested in various aspects of the culture of his country, which until 1917 belonged to Russia. He acquired his first piano lessons from his aunt Julia, and later, began his law studies at the University of Helsinki.
  • Arnold Schönberg

    Arnold Schönberg
    Austrian composer and painter, naturalized American. His life and work were always surrounded by controversy. Composer and pedagogue - his students Alban Berg and Anton von Webern occupy a privileged place in the history of music -, he was a capital figure in the evolution of music during the 20th century, although he faced incomprehension from the public and critics. of his time, unwilling to accept the break with the tonal system that his work represented.
  • Maurice Ravel

    Maurice Ravel
    French composer. Along with Debussy, with whom he is usually associated, he is the great representative of the modern French musical school. Universally known for his Bolero, his catalogue, although not very extensive, includes a series of somewhat little-known works that speak of a complex. An author who conceived his art as a beautiful artifice, a magical and fictional enclosure far from reality. Stravinsky rightly defined him as “the most perfect watchmaker of all composers.
  • Manuel de Falla

    Manuel de Falla
    Spanish composer. With the Catalans Isaac Albéniz and Enrique Granados, the Cádiz-born Manuel de Falla is the third of the names that make up the great trilogy of Spanish nationalist music. He was also one of the first composers of this tradition who, cultivating a style that was as unequivocally Spanish as it was far from the cliché, was able to make himself known successfully throughout Europe and America, and with this he overcame the isolation and subordination to other traditions.
  • Béla Bartók

    Béla Bartók
    Hungarian composer. Along with his compatriot Zoltán Kodály, Bela Bartok is the most important composer that Hungarian music has produced throughout its history and one of the essential figures on which contemporary music is based. Son of a teacher at the School of Agriculture of Nagyszenmiklós, the first seven years of the future musician's life were spent in this small town, today belonging to Romania. After his father died in 1888, his childhood was spent in the various Hungarian towns.
  • Joaquín Turina

    Joaquín Turina
    Spanish composer.His first musical studies were carried out in his hometown and, later, in Madrid. From 1905-14 he lived in Paris, and was a student of Moszkowski and Vincent d'Indy, at the Schola Cantorum.
    His production, of great technical mastery and nationalist affiliation, is often inspired by Andalusian popular music, without diminishing its universal value.Their musical language abounds in harmonies and modal scales, typical of Andalusian folklore, and a certain influence of French music.
  • Zoltán Kodály

    Zoltán Kodály
    Hungarian composer, music critic and ethnic musicologist. In 1900 he moved to Budapest, and studied composition at the Musical Academy, and Philology at the university. Between 1906 and 1907 he perfected his studies in Paris with C. Widor, and upon returning to his homeland he was appointed professor at the Musical Institute of the capital, where he had been a student. In collaboration with B. Bartók, he began a study in 1903 on Balkan folk musicality in general, and Magyar in particular.
  • Igor Stravinsky

    Igor Stravinsky
    Russian composer naturalized French and, later, American. One of the key dates that mark the birth of so-called contemporary music is May 29, 1913, the day Stravinsky's ballet The Rite of Spring premiered. Its polytonal harmony, its abrupt and dislocated rhythms and its aggressive orchestration caused among the public one of the biggest scandals in the history of the art of sounds.
  • Heitor Villa-Lobos

    Heitor Villa-Lobos
    Brazilian composer. Author of a catalog of colossal proportions, with nearly two thousand compositions that cover all genres, Héitor Villa-Lobos is the essential figure of Brazilian music.
    Born to an indigenous mother, she received her first musical lessons from her father, an amateur cellist. The cello, precisely, was going to be his first musical instrument; She later learned to play the piano and various wind instruments.
  • George Gershwin

    George Gershwin
    American composer. In a country that, until the end of the First World War, had depended in the musical field almost exclusively on fashions, composers and performers from Europe, he was the first to make an unequivocally native voice heard, although capable, at the same time. time, to achieve success outside the borders of his homeland. And he did so through works in which elements from jazz and the classical tradition were skillfully synthesized
  • Olivier Messiaen

    Olivier Messiaen
    French composer, organist, pedagogue and ornithologist. A Catholic faith, the fascination with Hinduism, the seduction of instrumental color and, above all, the love of birds and nature are some of the heterogeneous elements on which the personal style of Olivier Messiaen, an author, is based. hardly pigeonholed into a specific current. Fascinating for its timbral, rhythmic and harmonic richness, unmistakably modern, his music carries a human and universal message that connects to Christianism.
  • Pierre Schaeffer

    Pierre Schaeffer
    He was born on August 14, 1910 in Nancy.
    He studied engineering and later worked as a telecommunications specialist in Strasbourg and as a technician at French Broadcasting.
    Fundamentally known for being the father of musique concrète, a style that uses recorded sound materials made like a collage. He was one of the pioneers of electronic music. In 1942 he established the Studio d'Essai, a work center for concrete music and experimental radio.
  • John Cage

    John Cage
    American composer. Also a poet and essayist, he is situated within the North American avant-garde movement of the second half of the 20th century, influential in both contemporary experimental trends in the United States and Latin America.
    Son of an engineer who invented electronic devices and submarines, he entered the University of Pomona (California), and later studied architecture and piano in Europe. John Cage very early developed a quiet but tenacious desire for experimentation applied,
  • Pierre Henry

    Pierre Henry
    Nació en París en 1927, donde estudió en el conservatorio diez años, con profesores como Nadia Boulanger y Olivier Messiaen, durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Henry es considerado como uno de los pioneros de la música electroacústica y creador de la música concreta, junto a Pierre Schaeffer.
    Una de sus obras emblemàticas es Symphonie pour un homme seul (1950), un trabajo dividido en varias partes, que consiste en sonidos creados a partir del cuerpo humano.
  • Philipp Glass

    Philipp Glass
    He was born in 1937 and grew up in Baltimore. He studied at the University of Chicago, the Juilliard School and in Aspen with Darius Milhaud. Finding himself dissatisfied with much of what was then considered modern music, he moved to Europe, where he studied with the legendary pedagogue Nadia Boulanger (who also taught Aaron Copland, Virgil Thomson and Quincy Jones) and worked closely with the sitar virtuoso and composer Ravi Shankar.