Technology Timeline

Timeline created by ericajameson
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    First Computers in Healthcare

    1952 Computers where being developed out of the public eye in university laboratories. 1956 Second generation computers, based on transistor are developed. 1958 The integrated circuit is developed by Jack Kilby.
    (http://dlthede.net/informatics/chap01introni/healthcare_computers.html)
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    The Mouse, 3rd Generation Computers, First Health Data Set

    Douglas Engelbart invents the mouse, he later on develops video-conferencing. Second generation computers are in us by businesses, government and universities, only some healthcare institutions begin to include PC applications in their computer systems. 1964 Third Generation computers are introduced and now used an integrated circuit. They had OS that allows them to run many different programs at one time. Computers are now becoming smaller in size.
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    Congress amends SSA to included Medicare and Medicaid

    1965 US Congress amended the Social Security Act to include Medicare and Medicaid. Nurses were required to provided data to document care, for reimbursement. Shared data-processing centers were provided to some hospitals. Work begins on SNOP. 1969 Hospital information systems include patient diagnoses and other Patient information, care plans based on physician and nursing orders are made. UMHDS is formulated. COSTAR is developed.
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    Fourth Generation Computers, PROMIS*

    Intel develops a chip that locates all the components of a computer. PROMIS* was begun by Dr. Lawrence Weed. It was the first attempt to provide a total, integrated system that included all aspects of health care including patient treatment. 1971 Microprocessors, POMR* system is patient not healthcare oriented. PROMIS system made it possible to see the relationship between conditions, treatments, cost and outcomes.
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    UHDS is adopted

    1972 The Uniform Hospital Discharge Set is adopted 1973 The Division of Nursing, US Public Health Service, Department of Health, Education and Welfare funds the first invitational conference on management information systems for public and community health agencies under the auspices of the National League for Nursing. The conference was followed by 5 workshops designed to teach nurses how to implement CMS.
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    SNOMED and Apple

    1976 SNOP enlarged and becomes known as SNOMED with the goal of using it in electronic records. 1977 The first Apple II is delivered, very weak by todays standards but had the ability to do color graphics. The state of NY at Buffalo attempts to computerize a standardized patient assessment form. NJ DH implemented a home visiting management information system to provide statewide information on home visiting services.
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    Bill Gates and the 1st PC

    IBM realizes that they need to build smaller, stand alone computers. Bill Gates convinces them to use a larger chip, and to license the MOS as the operations system. 1981 IBM ships the first PC. 1982 The price of PC drops. The first IMIAWC on the impact of computers on Nursing was held in London. 1984 Apple introduces the first Macintosh with the use of a mouse and icons. 1985 the release of Windows 1.0. HHCCP develop a way to classify home health Medicare patients.
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    1986 The need for nurses to use information systems

    1986 ANA House of Delegates adopts a resolution identifying the need for nurses to us IS to collect essential data for clinical practice, management of nursing care and nursing resources, education and administration and research. It is recommended that Nursing Minimum Data set be tested and implemented at local, regional and national levels.
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    ANA House of Delegates Approved policies

    ANA House of Delegates Approved policies to promote the classification of nursing practice in the categories of assessment, diagnosis, interventions and outcomes. 1989 The Committee for Nursing Practice Information Infrastructure was formed. 1990 ANA pursue cost and quality to develop essential minimum data elements. Focus on automation in hospital IS becomes quality of Patient care.
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    Increased clinician usage

    Increased clinician usage by developing better user interfaces is a goal of IS. 1992 Cost becomes the major driver of computerization. NOC is published. Work begins on the patient care data set at UV. 1993 Intel introduces Pentium processor. 1994 LOINC system is initiated as a response to the demand for electronic movement of clinical data from laboratories that produce the data to hospitals, physician's offices, and payers who use the data for clinical care and management purposes.
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    Keeping cost down, PDA's, HIPAA

    1995 Keeping cost down is still important but now the focus moves to improving patient outcomes. PDA's are starting to appear in hospitals. 1996 Increased intreat in patient-centered computing environments. HIPAA is passed by Congress. 1997 The nightingale tracker that will allow students to be InTouch with instructors is under development. 1999 SNOMED and Read System are combined and become SNOMED-RT is recognized by the ANA.
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    HIPAA, PDA's, SNOMED-CT, National Coordinator for HIT

    2000 HIPAA final rules and regulations are being made. 2002 HIPAA rules are finalized. PDA's are now popular among clinicians to easily access reference material. NAHIT is established 2003 Attention to standardization of documentation. 2004 President Bush establishes the position of National Coordinator for HIT and the ONC. 2005 AHIC and HITSP is established.
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    HITECH, ARRA, HIEs

    2007 PDA's are used more in clinical areas by all healthcare workers. 2009 HITECH Act passes as part of the ARRA. Meaningful use that focused on health care performance-improvement efforts, provided help for physicians to implement EMR. Development of HIE's. 2010's Meaningful use deadlines established.