Surpreme Court Cases

  • Creation of the Supreme Court

    Creation of the Supreme Court
    Article 3 of the Constitution created the Supreme Court on Setember 17, 1787, when the Constitution was signed. There are other inferior courts that Congress may establish but the Supreme Court is the highest. Judges shall receive compensation for their time in office and should not decrease over their time in office. If a state is part of the case, the Supreme Court has jurisdiction. Any crime has a jury, except impeachment. Today, 1 chief justice, 8 associate justices
  • Chief Justice John Jay

    Chief Justice John Jay
    ended term in 1795. First Chief Justice John Jay is appointed in 1789 by George Washington.He continued diplomatic missions while on the Court.Negotiated Jay's Treaty,upon return, elected governor of NY and resigned his post as Chief Justice.SIgnificant because he served as the first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, which would make many landmark decisions in later years.He also served with Washington and basically got the court started.
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    George Washington

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    John Adams

  • John Marshall

    John Marshall
    He made a number of landmark decisions in his tenure at the head of the Supreme Court until 1835.His decisions in landmark cases had the effect of strengthening the central government at the expense of the states rights.He established the concept of judicial review in Marbury v. Madison.He was one of John Adam's "midnight" appointments and had some disagreements with the presidents during his tenure.He was the only Federalist power left after the election of 1800. Sig.-judicial review, 34 years
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    Thomas Jefferson

  • Marbury vs Madison

    Marbury vs Madison
    Jefferson wanted to block the Federalist appointments made by Adams,Secretary of State James Madison not to deliver the commissions.William Marbury sued for his commission.Marshall ruled that Marbury had a right to his commission according to the Judiciary Act of 1789.But, he also ruled that the act was unconstitutional. With this decision, Marshall established the doctrine of "judicial review." From this point on, the Supreme Court could decide whether or not an act was constitutional.
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    James Madison

  • Fletcher v. Peck

    Fletcher v. Peck
    In 1795,Georgia passed a land grant giving some land to four different companies.The next year,the legislature voided the law and all rights and claims,too.John Peck acquired some of the land in 1800.He sold it to Robert Fletcher in 1803.Peck said the past sales were legit.Fletcher then said that since the original sale of the land had been voided,Peck had no legal right to sell it.Supreme Court ruled that a state could not pass a law voiding a contract and deemed it unconstitutional-1st time
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    James Monroe

  • Dartmouth College v. Woodard

    Dartmouth College v. Woodard
    New Hampshire tried to alter Dartmouth College's original charter to make it a public school. The case went to the Supreme Court where John Marshall ruled that the contract must stay unless both sides agree to cancel it. The significance is that the ruling protected private colleges from being take over by the state.
  • McCulloch vs. Maryland

    McCulloch vs. Maryland
    Maryland tried to put a tax on the 2nd Band of the U.S. The Maryland branch refused to pay the tax. Maryland took the case to the Supreme Court. John Marshall used a loose interpretation the Constitution to rule that the federal government had the implied power to create the bank and a state cannot tax a federal institution. Federal laws supreme over state laws and state cant tax federal institutions
  • Gibbons vs. Ogden

    Gibbons vs. Ogden
    Robert Fulton and Robert Livingston had a monopoly of steamboat navigation on the Hudson River. Sold rights to Aaron Ogden to operate a ferry from NY to NJ. Thomas Gibbons wanted into ferry business, Ogden sued. Marshall favored Gibbons. Broke up Fulton and Livingston's monopoly. It also reminded the state of NY that they had no authority to regulate interstate commerce, responsibility of Congress. Marshall established federal gov. broad control of interstate commerce.
  • Cherokee Nation vs. Georgia

    Cherokee Nation vs. Georgia
    During the 1830s, when President Jackson issued the Indian Removal Act, Georgia passed laws that required the Cherokees to move out west. The Cherokees challenged the laws in the Georgia courts and it eventually went to the Supreme Court. The Court ruled that the Cherokees were not a foreign nation and therefore did not have the right to sue in a federal court. It was significant because it said that the indian tribe was not a foreign nation. It contradicts with Worcester vs. Georgia.
  • Worcester vs. Georgia

    Worcester vs. Georgia
    In the 2nd case with Georgia and its forced removal of Native Americans, the Surpreme Court ruled that laws Georgia passed to remove the Indians had no effect in the Cherokee territory. Andrew Jackson supported the states rights and said, referring to this and the decision in Cherokee Nation vs. Georgia, "John Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it." This is significant because it ruled that the laws Georgia had passed did not affect the Cherokees, saying they were a nation.
  • Commonwealth vs. Hunt

    Commonwealth vs. Hunt
    Labor unions were starting to form in the late 1820s. Problems such as low pay, long working hours, and unsafe conditions prompted the formation of these unions and small political parties. The one big victory for the labor party was in 1842 in Commonwealth vs. Hunt. The Supreme Court ruled that peaceful unions had the right to negotiate contracts with employers. This is significant because we have labor unions all over now so it kind of set a precedent.
  • Dred Scott vs. Sandford

    Dred Scott vs. Sandford
    Dred Scott was a slave in Missouri but then his owner moved to Wisconsin, a free territory, where they lived for two years, then moved back. Scott then claimed he was free because he had lived on free soil for two years. The court gave these reasons for disagreeing with Scott, he had no right to sue in federal court because he was African, Congress did not have the right to take away property and slaves were considered property, and the Missouri Compromise was unconsitutional (excluded slavery).
  • Maples vs. Thomas

    Maples vs. Thomas
    Cory Maples lost his chance for appeal for a death sentence when his pro bono attorneys left a firm to join another one. The old firm's mailroom returned a court order that said "Return to Sender-Left Firm." The district court denied Maples' late request for appeal which was supported by the 11th circuit court. Maples said it wasn't his fault and said the state should take some of the blame as a mailroom clerk put the letter in a drawer and told no one.