Stephen ToulminStephen Edelston Toulmin was born in London in 1922. He was educated at Cambridge University and received his doctorate in philosophy in 1948. He began his teaching career in 1949 and taught in many different academic institutions, including Oxford University, the University of Melbourne (Australia), Leeds University, New York University, Columbia University, Stanford University, Hebrew University (Jerusalem), the University of London, Brandeis University, Michigan State. And many more.
Stephen Toulmin Birth and DeathHe created the Toulmin Argument. He essentially broke it down into six components. Claim, grounds, warrant, qualifier, rebuttal and backing. This was a a structure for analyzing arguments. These elements for analysis are so clear and structured that many professors now have students write argumentative essays with the elements of the Toulmin method in mind. They say this method works well when there is no clear truths or absolute solutions to a problem. I feel this a well structured.
Toulmin methodToulmin method is constructed
ToulminIn 1997, Toulmin became the 26th recipient of the U.S. government's highest honor for intellectual achievement (from the National Endowment for the Humanities). His acceptance speech, the annual Jefferson Lecture, was to be focused on "the importance of dissent." During the 1990s, Toulmin remained on the faculty and continued to teach religion, international relations, communications and anthropology at the University of Southern California. Sources: