Musicians and their Eras: The Middle Ages to The Classical Period

Timeline created by nspanier
In Music
  • 991

    Birth of Guido D'Arezzo

    Italian who developed Solfege
  • 1033

    Death of Guido D'Arezzo

    Italian who developed Solfege
  • 1098

    Birth of Hildegard Von Bingen

    From Holy Roman Empire (modern day Germany); composer and Doctor of the Church
  • 1100

    Ibn al-’Awwam writes first botanical encyclopedia

    Ibn al-’Awwam wrote on hundreds of crop and flower species including details on soil quality
  • 1135

    Birth of Léonin

    French composer of Organum
  • 1179

    Death of Hildegard Von Bingen

    From Holy Roman Empire (modern day Germany); composer and Doctor of the Church
  • 1200

    Birth and Death of Pérotin

    was the French composer, Anonymous IV
  • 1200

    St. Francis of Assisi becomes well-known

    St. Francis of Assisi emphasizes the importance of living in harmony with nature and wants to understand nature.
  • 1201

    Death of Léonin

    French composer of Organum
  • 1240

    Frederick II writes on avian biology

    Frederick II writes a six volume work on ecology of birds. He compares their anatomy and other characteristic habits.
  • 1273

    King Edward I of England enacts first air pollution law

    King Edward I of England bans use of "sea coal" for fuel, because it produced a lot of smoke. It was the first air pollution law.
  • 1300

    Birth of Machaut

    French composer who wrote the first Mass setting
  • 1377

    Death of Machaut

    French composer who wrote the first Mass setting
  • 1450

    Birth of Josquin

    French or possibly Belgium Renaissance master; composer of sacred and secular music
  • 1493

    Christopher Columbus brings new plants to Old World

    Christopher Columbus brings corn, peppers, bananas, pineapples, and other staple plants to the Old World for consumption from the West Indies.
  • 1506

    Birth of Jacques Arcadelt

    Italian composer of many secular madrigals
  • 1521

    Death of Josquin

    French or possibly Belgium Renaissance master; composer of sacred and secular music
  • 1525

    Birth of Palestrina

    Italian composer of Renaissance polyphony music during Counter-Reformation
  • 1543

    Andreas Vesalius founds anatomy

    Andreas Vesalius establishes the discipline of anatomy which is integral in understanding ecology.
  • 1567

    Birth of Monteverdi

    Italian composer who wrote the first operas still performed regularly today
  • 1568

    Death of Jacques Arcadelt

    Italian composer of many secular madrigals
  • Andrea Cesalpino publishes De Plantis Libri XVI

    De Plantis Libri XVI is the first botany textbook written. It uses binomial nomenclature, two years before Linnaeus.
  • Death of Palestrina

    Italian composer of Renaissance polyphony music during Counter-Reformation
  • Birth of Cozzolani

    Italian nun composer who wrote in a time where it was unusual for women to be writing music
  • The Lincean Academy is founded

    It is one of the first scientific communities established with Galileo Galilei focusing on entomology and paleobiology.
  • Death of Monteverdi

    Italian composer who wrote the first operas still performed regularly today
  • Birth of Purcell

    English composer who was the first great hope of the English musical world
  • John Evelyn publishes Fumifugium

    Fumifugium is the first book published on air pollution suggesting alternative energy sources other than coal.
  • Robert Hooke discovered the cell

    Robert Hooke published Micrographia, a book that describes him discovering cells.
  • Jan Swammerdam discovers life stages of insects

    Jan Swammerdam discovers that insects have multiple life stages like the egg, larvae, pupa, and adult stages, proving they are all the same organism.
  • Nicholas Steno discovers fossils

    Nicholas Steno determines that solid objects in a rock are shark teeth, which is the first recognized fossil.
  • Death of Cozzolani

    Italian nun composer who wrote in a time where it was unusual for women to be writing music
  • Birth of Vivaldi

    Italian composer who wrote The Four Seasons
  • Birth of Handel

    German; Composed first work ("Messiah") to be put considered permanent repertoire by being performed year after year
  • Birth of Bach

    German composer whose music demands attention and is considered one of the greatest of Western music
  • Birth of Scarlatti

    Italian composer, part of the class of 1685, who wrote music not just for the opera
  • Death of Purcell

    English composer who was the first great hope of the English musical world
  • Birth of Haydn

    Austrian (from Rohrau) composer who was witty and beautiful in his compositions. He was also a really nice guy.
  • Carolus Linnaeus publishes "Systema naturae"

    "Systema naturae" is the first to consistently use a system of binomial nomenclature, and Linnaeus is the father of taxonomy.
  • Death of Vivaldi

    Italian composer who wrote The Four Seasons
  • "Histoire naturelle" is published

    George-Louis Leclerc defines concept of a species on basis of reproductive exclusivity
  • Death of Bach

    German composer whose music demands attention and is considered one of the greatest of Western music
  • Birth of Mozart

    Austrian composer who was naturally gifted, a child prodigy, aware of the human condition in his music.
  • Death of Scarlatti

    Italian composer, part of the class of 1685, who wrote music not just for the opera
  • Death of Handel

    German; Composed first work ("Messiah") to be put considered permanent repertoire by being performed year after year
  • Birth of Beethoven

    German composer who was angry but redefined symphonies
  • Georg Foster notes species invasion

    Georg Foster describes canary grass and its invasion on an island- the first description of species invasion
  • Joseph Priestly describes oxygen

    First description of oxygen and noted that plants covert carbon dioxide to oxygen
  • Linnaeus states a balance-of-nature concept

    A balance-of-nature concept details that natural things are connected and balanced.
  • Gilbert White publishes "The Natural History and Antiquities of Selborne"

    Becomes the most widely read book of natural history ever published
  • Death of Mozart

    Austrian composer who was naturally gifted, a child prodigy, aware of the human condition in his music.
  • Georges Cuvier establishes extinction

    Based on comparison of elephant and mammoth skulls, Cuvier establishes the concept of extinction
  • Death of Haydn

    Austrian (from Rohrau) composer who was witty and beautiful in his compositions. He was also a really nice guy.
  • Lamarck proposes concept of evolution

    The concept of evolution Lamarck proposes is that complex life forms evolve from simple organisms
  • Death of Beethoven

    German composer who was angry but redefined symphonies
  • Period:
    401
    to
    1500

    The Middle Ages

  • Period:
    1301
    to

    The Renaissance

  • Period: to

    The Baroque Era

  • Period: to

    The Classical Era