The Romantic Era (1810s-1890)

  • Luigi Cherubini

    Italian composer, theorist, teacher, and administrator working in Paris, he was a dominant figure in French musical life, especially in opera and education
  • Jean-Francois Le Sueur

    French composer and writer; important to French music during and after the Revolution
  • Johann Simon Mayr

    Founder of Romantic Italian Opera; German by birth; a central figure in Italian opera before Rossini and after Mozart
  • Etienne-Nicolas Mehul

    French composer; contributed to the genre of opera comique; he was the most important French composer of symphonies in the early 19th century
  • Prince Nikolaus Eszterhazy

    Haydn's patron and employer after 1790
  • Ludwig van Beethoven

    Instrumental in moving music towards Romanticism; he is an icon in our present culture; he established the heroic topic in orchestral music and was the transitional composer between classicism and romanticism
  • Antonie [Anton] Reicha

    Czech composer; especially important as a theorist and teacher in Paris
  • Ferdinando Paer

    Italian composer and teacher; admired by Napoleon
  • Gaspare Spontini

    Italian working in Paris; conductor; Empress Josephine's favorite musician; the central figure in French serious opera from 1800 to 1820
  • Adrien Boieldieu

    French composer; he was the leading composer of opera in France during the early 19th century; leader in opera comique
  • E. T. A Hoffmann

    German writer and composer; writer of The Nutcracker fable; his writings epitomize Romanticism; also an artist
  • Johann Nepomuk Hummel

    Austrian composer, pianist, teacher, and conductor; student of Mozart; very important during his day
  • Louise Reichardt

    German composer and singing teacher; daughter of J. F. Reichardt; conducted women's chorus in Hamburg
  • John Field

    Irish composer and pianist; he originated the Romantic style of piano writing that is credited to Chopin; he invented the piano nocturne
  • Nicolo Paganini

    Italian violinist and composer; he contributed significantly to the history of the violin and to the development of virtuosity
  • Georges Onslow

    French composer of English descent; Berlioz thought he would be Beethoven's successor - he was not
  • Ferdinand Ries

    German composer, pianist, and copyist; student of Beethoven
  • Louis Spohr

    German composer, conductor, and violinist; he used Leitmotifs in his operas before Wagner did; prolific
  • Carl Maria von Weber

    Founder of German Romantic Opera; studied with Michael Haydn; important conductor
  • Giacomo Meyerbeer

    The leading composer of French Grand Opera; Jewish, and the object of Wagner's anti-Semitic writings in 1850
  • Gioachino Rossini

    The most famous composer in the early 19th century in Vienna; composed mostly choral music and operas; Italian
  • Ignaz Moscheles

    Bohemian composer; pianist, teacher, and conductor of Czech birth; important as a pianist during the time of Schumann and Mendelssohn
  • Saverio Mercadante

    Italian composer and teacher; during his day he was as important as Donizetti, Bellini, and Verdi; prolific in most genres
  • Gaetano Donizetti

    Student of Mayr; Verdi's immediate forerunner in serious Italian opera; prolific composer of all genres
  • Franz Schubert

    Austrian composer who created a genre of artistic and dramatic Lieder; expansive melodies; frequent modulations; many unfinished works; romanticized after his early death
  • Vincenzo Bellini

    Italian opera composer; created dramas with extreme passion, action , and emotion
  • Hector Berlioz

    French composer, conductor, writer and innovator; he was the leading French musician in his day; his works embody the notions of Romanticism
  • Louise Farrenc

    French composer, pianist, teacher, and scholar; the most esteemed French female professor in the 19th century
  • Mikhail Glinka

    The father of Russian music; European trained; prolific
  • Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel

    Had the same training as Felix; she was discouraged from composing; married, then published more; her house was a center for intellectuals and culture
  • Felix Mendelssohn

    Early romantic; conservative style; important as a conductor; revived Bach's music; German composer Jewish heritage
  • Summary

    Most radical changes since music's recorded history, music was more emotional and was expected to be emotional, interest in the nature and mind of the artist, emotions were "romanticized", new harmonics were introduced, new forms and harmonic possibilities were also introduced, brass and percussion sections were enlarged, chromaticism was used freely, rubato, solo recitals became popular,
  • Instruments

    Piano had the most important improvements and the tunings of many instruments was significantly refined, percussion instruments became more involved, other instruments that were considered "accompanying" were integrated into the new modern orchestral sound
  • Felicien David

    French composer; after Berlioz, the only other composer to do something highly original in the symphonic genre; he favored oriental topics
  • Robert Schumann

    Important as critic, editor, and composer; center of musical life; lost his sanity at a young age
  • Frederic Francois Chopin

    Polish/French composer and pianist; he innovated new piano techniques; he is more famous today than during his lifetime; known for his character pieces
  • Period: to

    The Romantic Era

  • Franz Liszt

    Virtuoso pianist; conductor; author; supporter of Wagner; innovator in musical form, aesthetics, and harmonics; inventor of the orchestral tone poem
  • Ambroise Thomas

    French composer; important to French opera
  • Giuseppe Verdi

    The leading Italian opera composer of the 19th century; became a national hero of Italy
  • Richard Wagner

    Created of German Music Drama; conductor, writer, musical innovator; wrote about music of the future; anti-semite; profoundly influenced Western harmony; strove for endless melodies
  • Josephine Lang

    German composer and singer; one of the most published women composers in the 19th century
  • Niels Gade

    Danish composer, conductor, violinist, and teacher; he was ranked with Brahms by his contemporary public
  • Charles Gounod

    French prolific composer; wrote in most genres of the day
  • Jacques Offenbach

    The founder of Opera bluffs; introduced the can-can
  • Clara Wieck Schumann

    Virtuoso pianist; wife of Robert Schumann; close friend of Brahms
  • Pauline Viardot-Garcia

    French composer, teacher, singer, and pianist; student of Liszt
  • Cesar Franck

    French nationalist composer, teacher, and organist
  • Joachim Raff

    German composer, teacher, and writer, ranked with Brahms during his day; associated with Liszt
  • Anton Bruckner

    Austrian composer and organist; follower of Wagner; known for his large orchestrations; incredibly conscientious approach to composition
  • Carl Reinecke

    German composer, teacher, pianist, writer, and conductor
  • Bedrich Smetana

    Czech composer; established Czech opera in the 19th century; nationalist
  • Eduard Hanslick

    Austrian music critic and writer; he is considered the first professional music critic; we learn a great deal about 19th century aesthetics from his writings; professor of music history and aesthetics at the University of Vienna (1861)
  • Johann Strauss

    Viennese composer, conductor, and violinist; called the "Waltz-King"
  • Stephen Foster

    American songwriter; vernacular style
  • Louis Moreau Gottchalk

    American composer and virtuoso pianist; one of the most significant American 19th century musicians; well known in Europe
  • Anton Rubinstein

    Russian composer and virtuoso pianist; Founder of the St. Petersburg Conservatory in 1862
  • Joseph Joachim

    Hungarian vionlinist, composer, conductor, and teacher; toured with Clara Schumann; friends with Brahms
  • Aleksander Borodin (Russian Mighty Five)

    One of the Russian Mighty Five; a chemist by profession
  • Johannes Brahms

    Austrian composer; known as a classic-romantic; strong knowledge of the musical past; one of the first editors of Bach's music; conductor, pianist; friends with Schumanns; never wrote an opera
  • Nikolay Rubinstein

    Russian composer, pianist, conductor, and teacher; brother of Anton; he founded the Moscow Conservatory
  • Camille Saint-Saens

    French composer, pianist, organist, and writer
  • Cesar Cui (Russian Mighty Five)

    One of the Russian Mighty Five; of French descent
  • Mily Balakirev (Russian Mighty Five)

    One of the Russian Mighty Five; one of the more professionally trained musicians of the five
  • Georges Bizet

    French composer who created a new type of serious French opera
  • Modest Musorgsky (Russian Mighty Five)

    One of the Russian Mighty Five; most famous of the 5 today; his music is rooted in Russian folksong and lore
  • John Knowles Paine

    American; organist, composer; teacher of the new generation of American composers; Harvard's first professor of music
  • Piotr II'yich Tchaikovsky

    Russian composer, conductor and teacher; Western trained; emotional; conservative harmonic language
  • Emmanuel Chabreir

    French composer and pianist; Ravel's main influence; important for his piano works and imaginative stage works
  • Antonin Dvorak

    The most famous of the Czech composers; lived in the USA; influenced by African-American and Native American music and culture
  • Jules Massenet

    French composer; prolific and versatile
  • Arthur Sullivan

    English composer and conductor; his comic operas are still popular today (Gilbert and Sullivan operas)
  • Edvard Grieg

    The most important Norwegian composer during his day
  • Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov (Russian Mighty Five)

    One of the Russian Mighty Five; important as a teacher; conductor; wrote an orchestration treatise
  • Gabriel Faure

    French composer, teacher, and keyboardist; he foreshadowed moder tonality and style; extremely important as a teacher; head of the Paris Conservatory
  • Vincent d'Indy

    French composer, theorist and writer; Franck's leading pupil; used folksong
  • Charles Villiers Stanford

    British composer, conductor, writer, and teacher; he made important contributions to English church music
  • Leos Janacek

    Czech composer; ethnomusicologist; influenced by folk music
  • Engelbert Humperdinck

    German composer, critic, and teacher; close to Wanger
  • John Philip Sousa

    American; leader of the U.S. Marine Band in 1880
  • Ernest CHausson

    French composer; admirer of Franck and Wagner
  • Cecile Chaminade

    French composer and pianist; most of her works were published
  • Edward Elgar

    English composer; received international acclaim; not folksong oriented
  • Ruggiero Leoncavallo

    Italian composer and librettist; strove for realism in his dramatic works
  • Giacorno Puccini

    Italian opera composer; gift for delicate melodies; strove for realism; the most successful Italian opera composer after Verdi
  • Cecil Sharp

    English composer; collector and editor of folksongs
  • Hugo Wolf

    Wrote mostly Lieder; influenced by Wagner
  • Aleksander Glazunov

    Pupil of RImsky-Korsakov; the last of the Russian nationalist