Special Education History

Timeline created by karinag7
In History
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    References

    DisabilityJustice.(2020).The Right to Education.Disability Justice. https://disabilityjustice.org/right-to-education/.
    Gargiulo,R.M.,& Bouck,E.C.(2021).Special education in contemporary society:an introduction to exceptionality(7).SAGE. Klein,A.(2020). NoChildLeftBehind:An Overview.Education Week. https://www.edweek.org/policy-politics/no-child-left-behind-an-overview/2015/04.
    Yell,M.,Rogers,D.,&Lodge Rodgers,E.(1998).The legal history of special education.Remedial&Special Education,19(4),219.
  • Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas

    Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas
    Brown V. Board of of Education was the landmark and foundation for several future established special education laws. United States Supreme Court announced the end of segregation and mentality of "separate, but equal" within the educational system. (Gargiulo and Bouck, 2021, pg. 41) However, the Civil Rights case fought for the necessity of children with disabilities cannot be excluded from the public education, also. (Disability Justice, 2020)
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    Milestones with Special Education

    Each event listed impacted the current day's acknowledgement and implications for students deemed delayed or possessed impairments. Even though the first case presented was originally for segregation it lead to the current standards set for special education for all ages.
  • Elementary and Secondary Education Act (PL 89- 10)

    Elementary and Secondary Education Act (PL 89- 10)
    During President Johnson's Great Society program, the ESEA was established to ensure that federal government provided appropriate amount of funds for school districts to assist with students with disabilities or impairments within the educational policies. (Klein, 2020) This was the foundation for several other developments to create a system benefiting all students.
  • Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Children v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania

    Pennsylvania  Association for Retarded Children v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
    Within the PARC versus Commonwealth case, states prevented any discriminations towards all student with intellectual disabilities and ensure a free public education.(Gargiulo and Bouck, 2021, pg. 41) Furthermore, according to the Fourteen Amendment, parents were granted right into decisions towards their children overall education and methods. (Disability Justice, 2020) This case leads to further development, and policies for the advocacy of children with impairments.
  • Mills v. Board of Education of the District of Columbia

    Mills v. Board of Education of the District of Columbia
    Mills Board of Education of the D.C extended the decision of PARC to include all children with disabilities, and instilled the constitutional rights for children and their education. (Gargiulo and Bouck, 2021, pg. 41) Thus laying down a foundation for the Education for All Handicapped Act (Public Law 94-142).
  • Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act

    Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act
    The piece of legislation protects all children and adults from discrimination, thus is a civil rights law. Within the educational system, accommodations must be made for the person who has been classified to posses an physical or mental impairment hindering "major life activities." (Gargiulo and Bouck, 2021, pg. 49)
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    IDEA Law Inceptions and Changes

    IDEA has changed significantly through the past four decades and each rewrite and reauthorization is addressed with a few key changes in the laws.
  • Education for All Handicapped Act (Public Law 94-142)

    Education for All Handicapped Act (Public Law 94-142)
    The "Bill of Rights" for children, this legislation paved the way for the Individuals with DIsalbities Education Act (IDEA) and provided 6 major benefits and regulations for students with disabilities to receive free from the federal funding. (Gargiulo and Bouck, 2021) The overall centerpiece for the EAHCA was the implications for Individualized Education Programs, which provided assistance towards all students with diverse impairments. (Yell, Rogers, & Lodge Rodgers, 1998)
  • Pubic Law 99-457

    Pubic Law 99-457
    This law was a direct extension for EAHCA (PL 94-142) and included the benefits and services be provided for preschoolers with disabilities. Individualized family service plan (IFSP) were implemented to ensure the early inventions for toddlers to be addressed and assed for children with developmental delays and disabilities. (Gargiulo and Bouck, 2021) This was the first extension, and provided a lot of insight to the following rewrites.
  • Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)

    Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
    The legislation of EAHCA, was rebranded to be the IDEA, where it established the several new key concepts utilized in present day education such as the Social work and counseling are services required, and individual transition plans (ITP) by the age of 16 for each student within an IEP. (Gargiulo and Bouck, 2021)
  • IDEA Reauthorization (PL 105-17)

    IDEA Reauthorization (PL 105-17)
    For this third revision of IDEA, the students with disabilities are required to partake in state and district assessments of their overall development. (Gargiulo and Bouck, 2021) There were also a greater variety of tools and techniques utilized to assess or assist each student in their education. Furthermore, general educators are required to join the IEP team and be aware of t he basic classification and strategies within the students' plans.
  • No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (PL 107-110)

    No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (PL 107-110)
    The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) was an ESEA reauthorization, but focused on the proficiency in reading, and math for all students. Furthermore, a greater emphasis was placed on those in the special education system, thus it was required each student demonstrate improvement in the areas.(Klein, 2020).
  • Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (PL 108-446)

    Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (PL 108-446)
    Public Law 108-446 is referred as IDEIA or IDEA 2004. It was signed off by President Bush to modify the criteria for classification under IDEA and other requirements with the IEP.(Gargiulo and Bouck, 2021) Current educational systems function under these present guidelines established in the IDEIA and affect all students with specific learning disabilities in preschool to 21 years old.
  • Every Student Succeeds Act (PL 114-95)

    Every Student Succeeds Act (PL 114-95)
    ESSA is the most recent revision of NCLBA, and was written into law by President Obama. With similar premise of the NCLBA, students test in mathematics and reading, however the adequate progress was replaced by the statewide accountability system. (Gargiulo and Bouck, 2021) Furthermore, students with disabilities will be granted access to general education curriculum, accommodations, and other benefits, which are still implemented to current day. These factors will benefit all students overall.