South Africa

  • Jan 1, 1480


    Portuguese navigator Bartholomeu Dias is the first European to travel round the southern tip of Africa.
  • Period: Nov 27, 1480 to

    South Africa

  • 1795

    British forces seize Cape Colony from the Netherlands.
  • 1880

    Boers rebel against the British, sparking the first Anglo-Boer War. Conflict ends with a negotiated peace. Transvaal is restored as a republic.
  • 1899

    British troops gather on the Transvaal border and ignore an ultimatum to disperse. The second Anglo-Boer War begins.
  • 1902

    Treaty of Vereeniging ends the second Anglo-Boer War. The Transvaal and Orange Free State are made self-governing colonies of the British Empire.
  • 1910

    Formation of Union of South Africa by former British colonies of the Cape and Natal, and the Boer republics of Transvaal, and Orange Free State.
  • 1948

    Policy of apartheid (separateness) adopted when National Party (NP) takes power.
  • 1950

    Population classified by race. Group Areas Act passed to segregate blacks and whites. Communist Party banned. ANC responds with campaign of civil disobedience, led by Nelson Mandela.
  • 1961

    South Africa declared a republic, leaves the Commonwealth. Mandela heads ANC's new military wing, which launches sabotage campaign