Scientific and Industrial Revolution & Englightenment

  • Feb 9, 1543

    Andreas Vesalius

    Andreas Vesalius
    Biography: VesaliusAnatomy. In 1543, Andreas Vesalius published 2 works of anatomy directed to two separate audiences. One of them, The Fabrica. In 1561 he wrote the book An examination of Gabrielle Fallopio’s Anatomical Observations. Vesalius hoped to persuade the established medical world to appreciate anatomy as the foundation of all other medical research.
  • Feb 9, 1543

    Nicholas Copernicus

    Nicholas Copernicus
    Nicholas Copernicus published his famous book, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres in 1543. He was a mathematician. The Copernican universe. The way he viewed the world was against the church. He believed that the sun is the center, heliocentric.
    (book, page # 513)
  • Feb 9, 1571

    Johannes Kepler

    Johannes Kepler
    Johannes KeplerKepler's 1st law. The orbit of a planet about the Sun is an ellipse with the Sun's center of mass at one focus. Also believed in elliptical orbits. He was founder of "celestial mechanics" having been the first to explain planetary motion. His publication, Stereometrica Doliorum formed the basis of integral calculus.
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  • First Newspaper

    First Newspaper
    First NewspaperRelation aller Fürnemmen un gedenckwürdigen Historien (Collection of all distinguished and commemorable news) was the first newspaper according to World Assocition of Newspapers and many writers. It was published in Stratsburg in 1609. Johann Carolus wrote The First Newspaper. Now, many people read the daily newspaper thanks to Johann Carolus and the people that followed him.
  • Galileo

    In 1610, Galileo published The Starry Messenger. He was the 1st European to make regular observations of the heavens with his telescope. He was under suspicion by authority of the Catholic church. And his support for the heliocentric got him in trouble with the Roman Catholic Church. telescope="heavens"=stars in the 17th century.
    Information found in your notes.
  • Newton

    Isaac NewtonIsaac Newton was born in 1642. He wrote his famous book, Mathemaatical Principles of Natural Philosophy. He was a mathematics person. Famous for his 3 laws of motion, which one is the universal law of gravitation. His 1st scientific achievement was the invention, a telescope.
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  • John Locke

    John Locke
    John Locke (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)Essay concerning Human Understandings, tabula rasa "blank mind". Newton+Locke=Beginning of Enlightenment. Locke's monumental An Essay Concerning Human Understanding concerns itself with determining the limits of human understanding in respect to God, the self, natural kinds and artifacts as well as different kinds of ideas. Information found in Your Notes.
  • Descartes

    Rene DescartesDescartes is clearly convinced that the discovery of the proper method is key to scientific advance. Descartes's first substantial work was the Regulae or Rules for the Direction of Mind which was published in 1710. Descartes produced The Principles of Philosophy in 1644.
  • Montesquieu

    Montesquieu originally publsihed anonymously The Spirit of The Laws and it quickly rose to a position of enormous influence in 1748. The three basic kinds of government kinds that are the Republics (small), Depotism (large), and Monarchies (medium).
    (Information found in Your Notes)
  • Inventions

    Inventors and Inventions of the Industrial RevolutionInventions: The textile Industry, telephone, Flying Shuttle, Telegraph (Samuel F. B. Morse), Spinning Jenny (James Hargreaves), water-powered look (Edmund Cartwright), cotton gin (Eli Whitney), Steam engine (James Watt), Steamboat (Robert Fulton), Lighbulb and electricity (Thomas Edison), and etc.
  • Diderot

    Diderot was a free lance writer. He wanted to know everything and wanted to share his knowledge with teachers, lawyers, and doctors. Wrote an encyclopedia with 28 volumes.
    (Information found in Your Notes)
  • Rousseau

    RosseauGovernment for private property. Enslaved. In 1762, the social contract. The general mill. Wrote many books. The alternative he proposed in 1762 (the social contract) is a civil society voluntarily formed by its citizens and wholly governed by reference to the general will expressed in their unanimous consent to authority.
    (Information found in Your Notes)
  • Voltaire

    VoltaireIn 1763, Voltaire wrote Treatise On Toleration. Voltaire did not support the dogmatic theology of institutional religions.
    (Information found in Your Notes)
  • Beccaria

    Beccaria, Cesare [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]Court System. No cruel punishment. A capital punishment (executed).
    At the encouragement of Pietro, Beccaria wrote On Crimes and Punishments in 1764.
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  • Adam Smith

    Adam Smith
    Adam Smith was involved in the modern economics system and the free market (enterprise). He wrote The Wealth of Nations. Laissez - faire - "to let do". He thinks that the government shouldn't rule, believes in the free enterprise.
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  • Pertaining to Marx, communism

    Pertaining to Marx, communism
    Communist Manifesto in 1848
    Bad working conditions
    Blamed capitalistic system
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  • Trade Unions

    Trade Unions
    Group of workers who joined together to protect rights. They used strikes (work stoppages) to scare employer into meeting demands. Massive amount formed between 1870 to 1914. By 1914, working and living conditions had bettered for working class.
    (Information found in Your Notes)
  • World Economy

    World Economy
    By 1900, Europeans were receiving beef and wool from Argentina
    Better transportation leads to easier trade
    European countries were leaders in World Trade
    Capital, industries, military
    (Book, pg # 618) (Information found in Your Notes)