Romantic Period (1810s-1890)

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  • Genres

    Popular genres composed during the Romantic Era include Symphony, Opera, Lieder, Concertos, Choral, Tone Poems, Ballets, Sonatas, and Oratorios
  • Stylistic Traits

    Stylistic traits of the Romantic Era include Strong emotional content, Programmatic music, Large and grand productions, Individual feeling, Use of chromatic movement, Use of rubato, Sonata, variations, ritornello, and rondo, and Dynamics.
  • Absolute Music

    Absolute music is music with no programmatic or literary connections – just music, no story
  • Gesamtkunstwerk

    Gesamtkunstwerk is a work of art that makes use of all or many art forms or strives to do so. The term is a German word which has come to be accepted in English as a term in aesthetics.
  • Leitmotiv

    A leitmotiv is a "short, constantly recurring musical phrase"[2] associated with a particular person, place, or idea. It is closely related to the musical concepts of idée fixe or motto-theme.
  • Incidental Music

    Incidental music is music in a play, television program, radio program, video game, film, or some other presentation form that is not primarily musical
  • Nationalism

    Nationalism is an ideology and movement that promotes the interests of a particular nation (as in a group of people) especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining the nation's sovereignty (self-governance) over its homeland.
  • American Declares War on Britian

    The United States declares war against Great Britain in 1812, not quite 30 years after the young nation had won its freedom from the English.
  • Pride and Prejudice

    Pride and Prejudice, a romantic novel of manners, is written and published by Jane Austen in 1813.
  • Napoleon Defeated at Waterloo

    Waterloo Campaign was fought between the French Army of the North and two Seventh Coalition armies, an Anglo-allied army and a Prussian army, that defeated Napoleon in the decisive Battle of Waterloo, forced him to abdicate for the second time, and ended the Napoleonic Era
  • Frankenstein

    Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus is a novel written and published by English author Mary Shelley
  • Monroe Doctrine enunciated in America

    The Monroe Doctrine, the cornerstone of U.S foreign policy, is enunciated by President James Monroe in his annual message to Congress.
  • Siege of the Alamo

    The Battle of the Alamo was fought between the Republic of Texas and Mexico from February 23, 1836 to March 6, 1836. It took place at a fort in San Antonio, Texas called the Alamo. The Mexicans won the battle, killing all of the Texan soldiers inside the fort.
  • Saxophone

    The first saxophone is invented by the Belgian instrument maker Adolphe Sax in the early 1840s
  • Gold Discovered in California

    Many people in California figured gold was there, but it was James W. Marshall on January 24, 1848, who saw something shiny in Sutter Creek near Coloma, California. He had discovered gold unexpectedly while overseeing construction of a sawmill on the American River
  • Harmonica Invented

    The Harmonica is created by Christian Friedrich Ludwig Buschmann, although other inventors developed similar instruments at the same time.
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    Cherubini (1760 - 1842)

    Luigi Cherubini was an Italian Classical and Romantic composer. His most significant compositions are operas and sacred music. Beethoven regarded Cherubini as the greatest of his contemporaries. His operas were heavily praised and interpreted by Rossini.
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    Beethoven (1770 - 1827)

    Ludwig van Beethoven was a German composer and pianist; his music is amongst the most performed of the classical repertoire and he is one of the most admired composers in the history of Western music. His works span the transition between the classical and romantic eras in classical music.
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    von Weber (1786 - 1826)

    Carl Ernst von Weber was a German composer, conductor, pianist, guitarist, and critic, and was one of the first significant composers of the Romantic school.
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    Meyerbeer (1791 - 1864)

    Giacomo Meyerbeer was a German opera composer of Jewish birth who has been described as perhaps the most successful stage composer of the nineteenth century. With his 1831 opera Robert le diable and its successors, he gave the genre of grand opera 'decisive character'. Meyerbeer's grand opera style was achieved by his merging of German orchestra style with Italian vocal tradition
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    Rossini (1792 - 1868)

    Gioachino Antonio Rossini was an Italian composer who gained fame for his 39 operas, although he also wrote many songs, some chamber music and piano pieces, and some sacred music. He set new standards for both comic and serious opera before retiring from large-scale composition while still in his thirties, at the height of his popularity
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    Donizetti (1797 - 1848)

    Domenico Maria Donizetti was an Italian composer, best known for his almost 70 operas. Along with Gioachino Rossini and Vincenzo Bellini, Donizetti was a leading composer of the bel canto opera style during the first half of the nineteenth century
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    Berlioz (1803 - 1869)

    Louis-Hector Berlioz was a French Romantic composer. His output includes orchestral works such as the Symphonie fantastique and Harold in Italy, choral pieces including the Requiem and L'Enfance du Christ, his three operas Benvenuto Cellini, Les Troyens and Béatrice et Bénédict, and works of hybrid genres such as the "dramatic symphony" Roméo et Juliette and the "dramatic legend" La Damnation de Faust
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    Felix Mendelssohn (1805 - 1847)

    Fanny Mendelssohn was a German composer and pianist from the Romantic era. She grew up in Berlin, Germany, and received a thorough musical education from teachers including her mother, Ludwig Berger, and Carl Friedrich Zelter. Her brother Felix Mendelssohn, also a composer and pianist, shared the same education and the two developed a close relationship
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    Fannie Mendelssohn (1809 -1847)

    Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy was a German composer, pianist, organist, and conductor of the early Romantic period. Mendelssohn's compositions include symphonies, concertos, piano music, and chamber music. His best-known works include his overture and incidental music for A Midsummer Night's Dream, the Italian Symphony, and the Scottish Symphony.
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    R. Schumann (1810 - 1856)

    Robert Schumann was a German composer, pianist, and influential music critic. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest composers of the Romantic era. Schumann left the study of law, intending to pursue a career as a virtuoso pianist. His teacher, Friedrich Wieck, a German pianist, had assured him that he could become the finest pianist in Europe, but a hand injury ended this dream. Schumann then focused his musical energies on composing
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    C. Schumann (1810 - 1896)

    Clara Schumann was a German pianist, composer and piano teacher. Regarded as one of the most distinguished pianists of the Romantic era, she exerted her influence over a 61-year concert career, changing the format and repertoire of the piano recital from displays of virtuosity to programs of serious works.
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    Chopin (1810 - 1849)

    Francois Chopin was a Polish composer and virtuoso pianist of the Romantic era who wrote primarily for solo piano. He has maintained worldwide renown as a leading musician of his era, one whose "poetic genius was based on a professional technique that was without equal in his generation."
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    Liszt (1811 - 1886)

    Franz Liszt was a Hungarian composer, virtuoso pianist, conductor, music teacher, arranger, and organist of the Romantic era. He was also a writer, philanthropist, Hungarian nationalist, and Franciscan tertiary.
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    Bartok (1881 - 1945)

    Bela Bartok was a Hungarian composer, pianist, and ethnomusicologist. He is considered one of the most important composers of the 20th century; he and Franz Liszt are regarded as Hungary's greatest composers (Gillies 2001). Through his collection and analytical study of folk music, he was one of the founders of comparative musicology, which later became ethnomusicology.
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    Verdi (1813 - 1901)

    Francesco Verdi was an Italian opera composer. He was born near Busseto to a provincial family of moderate means, and developed a musical education with the help of a local patron. Verdi came to dominate the Italian opera scene after the era of Vincenzo Bellini, Gaetano Donizetti, and Gioachino Rossini, whose works significantly influenced him.
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    Wagner (1813 - 1883)

    Richard Wagner was a German composer, theatre director, polemicist, and conductor who is chiefly known for his operas (or, as some of his mature works were later known, "music dramas"). Unlike most opera composers, Wagner wrote both the libretto and the music for each of his stage works.
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    Offenbach (1819 - 1880)

    Jacques Offenbach was a German-French composer, cellist, and impresario of the romantic period. He is remembered for his nearly 100 operettas of the 1850s–1870s and his uncompleted opera The Tales of Hoffmann. He was a powerful influence on later composers of the operetta genre, particularly Johann Strauss, Jr. and Arthur Sullivan.
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    Smenta (1824 - 1884)

    Bedřich Smetana was a Czech composer who pioneered the development of a musical style that became closely identified with his country's aspirations to independent statehood. He has been regarded in his homeland as the father of Czech music.
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    Foster (1826 - 1864)

    Stephen Foster was an American songwriter known primarily for his parlor and minstrel music He wrote more than 200 songs, and many of his compositions remain popular today. He has been identified as "the most famous songwriter of the nineteenth century" and may be the most recognizable American composer in other countries.
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    Brahms (1833 - 1897)

    Johannes Brahms was a German composer, pianist, and conductor of the Romantic period. Born in Hamburg into a Lutheran family, Brahms spent much of his professional life in Vienna. His reputation and status as a composer are such that he is sometimes grouped with Johann Sebastian Bach and Ludwig van Beethoven as one of the "Three Bs" of music, a comment originally made by the nineteenth-century conductor Hans von Bülow
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    Bizet (1838 - 1875)

    Georges Bizet, registered at birth as Alexandre César Léopold Bizet, was a French composer of the Romantic era. Best known for his operas in a career cut short by his early death, Bizet achieved few successes before his final work, Carmen, which has become one of the most popular and frequently performed works in the entire opera repertoire
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    Tchaikovsky (1840 - 1893)

    Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky was a Russian composer of the Romantic period. He was the first Russian composer whose music made a lasting impression internationally, bolstered by his appearances as a guest conductor in Europe and the United States. He was honored in 1884 by Tsar Alexander III and awarded a lifetime pension.
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    Dvorak (1840 - 1904)

    Antonín Leopold Dvořák was a Czech composer, one of the first to achieve worldwide recognition. Following the Romantic-era nationalist example of his predecessor Bedřich Smetana, Dvořák frequently employed rhythms and other aspects of the folk music of Moravia and his native Bohemia.
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    Puccini (1858 - 1924)

    Giacomo Puccini was an Italian opera composer who has been called "the greatest composer of Italian opera after Verdi".
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    Mahler (1860 - 1911)

    Gustav Mahler was an Austro-Bohemian Romantic composer, and one of the leading conductors of his generation. As a composer he acted as a bridge between the 19th century Austro-German tradition and the modernism of the early 20th century. While in his lifetime his status as a conductor was established beyond question, his own music gained wide popularity only after periods of relative neglect, which included a ban on its performance in much of Europe during the Nazi era.
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    The American Civil War

    The American Civil War was a civil war in the United States from 1861 to 1865, fought between the northern United States (loyal to the Union) and the southern United States (that had seceded from the Union and formed the Confederacy)
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    Gottschalk (1864 -1934)

    Louis Ferdinand Gottschalk was an American composer and conductor born in St. Louis, Missouri. The son of a Missouri governor, also named Louis, he studied music in Stuttgart, Germany, where his father, a judge, was American consul.