The Romantic Period (1810s-1890)

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    Goethe

    Johann Wolfgang von Goethe was a German poet, playwright, novelist, scientist, statesman, theatre director, critic, and amateur artist. Erlkonig (Lieder)
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    Cherubini

    Luigi Cherubini was an Italian Classical and Romantic composer. He is famous for his operas as well as for his religious music. French Opera: Lodoiska
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    Bonaparte

    Napoleon Bonaparte was a French military and political leader.He rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the Revolutionary Wars.
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    Beethoven

    Ludwig van Beethoven was a German composer and pianist. He is most known for being one of the most admired composers in the history of western music. His most famous piece is titled "Symphony No. 5 in c minor, Op."
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    Metternich

    Klemenz Wenzel von Metternich (Chancellor of Austria) was an Austrian diplomat who was at the center of European affairs for three decades as the Austrian Empire's foreign minister from 1809 and Chancellor from 1821 until the liberal Revolutions of 1848 forced his resignation.
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    Weber

    Carl Maria von Weber was a German composer, conductor, virtuoso pianist, guitarist and critic who was one of the first significant composers of the Romantic era. Best known for his operas, he was a crucial figure in the development of German Romantische Oper. Also, he composed the first German romantic opera "Der Freischtz" (The Magic Bullet).
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    Rossini

    Gioachino Rossini was an Italian composer who gained fame for his 39 operas.Also, he is known for writing many songs, some chamber music and piano pieces, and some sacred music.
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    Schubert

    Franz Schubert was an Austrian composer. He is most known for writing lieders, chamber music, symphonies, masses, and piano works.
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    Donizetti

    Gaetano Donizetti was an Italian composer, best known for his almost 70 operas. He was known as being the most famous composer in Europe in the early 19th century.
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    Heine

    Heinrich Hein was a German poet, writer and literary critic.
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    Bellini

    Vincenzo Bellini was an Italian opera composer, who was known for his long-flowing melodic lines for which he was named "the Swan of Catania".
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    Berlioz

    Hector Berlioz was a French Romantic composer and conductor. Also, he is known for being one of the most important early innovators of new orchestration and genres. Symphonie Fantastique (1830)
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    Mendelssohn

    Fanny Mendelssohn was a German composer and pianist and the sister of Felix Mendelssohn.
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    Mendelssohn

    Felix Mendelssohn was a German composer, pianist, organist, and conductor. He is most known for writing symphonies, concertos, piano music, organ music and chamber music.
  • Musical Manifestations

    -More minor keys
    -Large orchestras and choirs
    -Longer pieces
    -More percussion and brass
    -Phrasing less symmertical and more expansive
    -Ascending sixths favored in melodies
  • Musical Traits

    -Harmonic Chromaticism is favored
    -A wider range of dynamics
    -Crescendos become useful in creating moods
    -Softer endings
  • Chromaticism

    -Melodic Chromaticism- appears in the melody and does not affect the harmonic structure (chords)
    -Harmonic Chromaticism- this affects the chords and creates vagueness in the key or tonality.
  • Musical Genres

    -Pieces were meant to be poetic:
    --Character Pieces- 1 movement piano pieces: ballades, etudes, nocturnes, mazurkas
    --Lieder (plural), Lied (song); a song for a singer and piano
    --Tone Poems (symphonic poems)- 1 movement orchestral works that often had programmatic associations
    --Program music- non-vocal music that is associated with something outside of the music itself, such as a story, a poem, or some other suggestion by the composer
  • Musical Elements

    -Tempo: more varied within musical works, rubato, considerable stopping and starting in romantic music, leads to great expressivity
    -Melody: wider in range, more emotional in context, longer
    -Harmony: more complex, new chords invented, unique progressions were allowed, harmonic chromaticism was favored
    - Instruments: brass and percussion (orchestras increased)
    -Form: longer and very grandiose, mini or monumental
  • Musical Style

    Bildung: Poetic, Intellectual, Artistic, Spiritual (in a secular way), Beauty, Passion
    Entertainment: Skill, Virtuosity, Showmanship, Beauty, Passion
  • Concert Overture (Program Music)

    A single-movement concert piece for orchestra not associated with a staged piece; based on an extra-musical idea.
  • Incidental Music (Program Music)

    An overture and a series of pieces to be performed between the acts of a play and during important scenes.
  • Program Symphony (Program Music)

    A multi-movement work for orchestra that is associated with an extra-musical idea. It can tell a story or be descriptive.
  • Idee Fixe (fixed idea)

    A theme written to represent a person, place, or thing, that is played throughout a work serving as a unifying device.
  • Thematic Transformation

    Transformation of a theme to reflect a change in character.
  • Nationalists

    -Antonin Dvorak (1841-1904), Czech
    -Edvard Grieg (1843-1907), Norway
    -Jean Sibelius (1865-1957), Finland
    -Edward Elgar (1857-1934), England
    -Frederick Delius (1862-1934), England
    -Issac Albeniz (1860- 1909), Spain
    -Enrique Granados (1867- 1916), Spain
    -Manuel de Falla (1876-1946), Spain
  • French Opera Composers

    -Giacomo Meyerbeer (1791-1864)
    -Jacques Offenbach (1819-1880)
    -Georges Bizet (1838-1875)
  • German Opera Composers

    -Carl Maria von Weber (1786-1826)
    -Richard Wagner (1813-1883)
  • Italian Opera Composers

    -Gioachino Rossini (1792-1868)
    -Gaetano Donizetti (1797-1848)
    -Vincenzo Bellini (1801-1835)
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    Chopin

    Frederic Chopin was a polish composer and virtuoso pianist. He primarily wrote for solo piano.
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    Schumann

    Robert Schumann was a German composer, pianist, and influential music critic. He was known for for his piano music, lieder (songs), and orchestral music. Also, he was an editor and promoter of music.
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    Liszt

    Franz Liszt was a Hungarian composer, virtuoso pianist, conductor, music teacher, arranger, and organist. Also, he was a supporter of Richard Wagner.
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    Wagner

    Richard Wagner was a German composer, theatre director, polemicist, and conductor who is chiefly known for his operas. Unlike most opera composers, Wagner wrote both the libretto and the music for each of his stage works.
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    Verdi

    Giuseppe Verdi was an Italian opera composer. He was born near Busseto to a provincial family of moderate means, and developed a musical education with the help of a local patron.
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    The Congress of Vienna

    The Congress of Vienna was one of the most important international diplomatic conferences in European history, reconstituting the European political order after the downfall of the French Emperor Napoleon I. It was a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich.
  • The Ophicleide

    The Ophicleide
    A keyed brass instrument similar in range to a trombone. Invented by Jean Hilaire Aste.
  • The Carlsbad Decrees

    The Carlsbad Decrees
    The Carlsbad Decrees were a series of measures adopted by the German Confederation in 1819 that established severe limitations on academic and press freedoms and set up a federal commission to investigate all signs of political unrest in the German states.
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    Schumann

    Clara Schumann was a German virtuoso pianist, composer, and the wife of Robert Schumann.
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    Smetana

    Bedrich Smetana was a Czech composer who pioneered the development of a musical style that became closely identified with his people's aspirations to a cultural and political "revival." He has been regarded in his homeland as the father of Czech music. "Ma vlast (My Country) No. 2 : "Vltava" (The Moldau)."
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    Foster

    Stephen Foster known also as "the father of American music", was an American songwriter known primarily for his parlor and minstrel music. He wrote more than 200 songs, including "Oh!
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    Gottschalk

    Louis Moreau Gottschalk was an American composer and pianist, best known as a virtuoso performer of his own romantic piano works. "Le Banjo: Fantasie grotesque."
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    Brahms

    Johannes Brahms was a German composer, pianist, and conductor of the Romantic period.
  • The New York Philharmonic

    The New York Philharmonic
    The New York Philharmonic, officially the Philharmonic-Symphony Society of New York, Inc., globally known as New York Philharmonic Orchestra or New York Philharmonic-Symphony Orchestra, is a symphony orchestra based in New York City. It is one of the leading American orchestras popularly referred to as the "Big Five". Ureli Corelli Hill is the founder.
  • Symphonic (tone) Poem (Program Music)

    A one-movement orchestral work created by Franz Liszt in 1848 as an option to the traditional symphonic poem.
  • The Mighty Five (Russian Composers)

    -Mily Balakirev
    -Alexander Borodin
    -Cesar Cui
    -Nikolai Rimsky-Korsavok
    -Modest Musorgsky
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    Paderewski

    Ignacy Jan Paderewski was a Polish pianist and composer who became a spokesman for Polish independence. In 1919, he was the new nation's Prime Minister and foreign minister during which he signed the Treaty of Versailles, which ended World War I.