Road to the Civil War

  • Cotton Gin

    Eli Whitney
    Cotton gin - 1793 - cleaned the seeds out of cotton
    Sped up the cleaning of seeds
    Revolutionized the cotton crop
    Demand for cotton from Great Britain for textile manufacturing
    South becomes “Cotton Kingdom” & financially dependent on cash crops and slavery
    Increased the need for slavery
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    Sectionalism emerges in the United States, replacing the idea of nationalism
    Regions develop differing opinions
    Each region believed that their own section, or region, of the country is more important than the whole nation
  • Era of Good Feelings

    Following the War of 1812 , the United States entered into a period of national pride and political unity - No divisions among political parties - No problems with foreign nations
  • Missouri Compromise

    The extension of slavery into new territories divides the North and South - conflict over state’s rights
    Northern economy based on manufacturing
    Southern economy based on slavery
    Needed a balance of slave and free states to maintain balance
    Maine admitted as a free state
    Missouri admitted as a slave state
    Remaining Louisiana Territory split into - one for slaveholders, one part for free - 36°30’ line
    North of the line (except Missouri), slavery was banned
    South of the line, slavery was legal
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    Expansion and Reform

    No equality in United States society
    Your status was different based on race and citizenship
    Slavery an issue between North and South - sectionalism
    The expansion of slavery into newly acquired territories becomes an issue
    Many Americans called for reform in many areas of society including religion, prisons, education, slavery, and women’s rights.
  • Tarriff of Abominations

    Protective tariff designed to protect northern manufacturing from competition from cheaper British imports
    Upset the South - detrimental to the southern cotton economy
    British threatened to seek cotton in other markets due to the high cost of the tariff
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    Abolitionist Movement

    Slavery considered a “necessary evil”
    Abolitionist advocated the abolishment of slavery - freedom for slaves
    Grimke Sisters
    Frederick Douglas
    David Walker
  • Nat Turner's Rebellion

    -Led by a slave - Nat Turner - rebellion was a failure
    1831 - Caused the South to strengthen slave codes (laws restricting activities and conduct of slaves
  • Wlliam Lloyd Garrison - The Liberator

    Founded The Liberator, an anti-slavery newspaper - 1831
    Used the freedom of press to get his message out
  • SC Nullification Crisis

    -South Carolina began protesting the Tariff of Abominations - high tariffs on British imports
    -SC Senator John C. Calhoun - wrote a pamphlet called SC Exposition and Protest
    Called for state’s rights - states can nullify laws they feel are unconstitutional (Remember Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions?)
    1832 - SC threatened to secede if the tariffs were not repealed
  • Wlimot Proviso

    -Pennsylvania Congressman David Wilmot came up with a proviso, or condition
    1846 - Proposed banning slavery from any land purchased from Mexico
    Upset the Southern states
    Not approved
  • Compromise of 1850

    -With the acquisition of the Mexican territory, the extension of slavery once again becomes an issue
    -Henry Clay offers a compromise to maintain balance between the free and slave states
    *California admitted as a free state
    *Unorganized territories declared free
    *Utah and New Mexico territories were to decide *the issue of slavery through popular sovereignty
    -People in these areas could decide on the issue of slavery for themselves
  • Fugitive Slave Act

    -Required that Northern states return escaped slaves to their slave-owners in the South
    Many in the North refused the follow it
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    Underground Railroad

    • Network of people who helped slaves escape to the northern US and Canada -Led by escaped slave Harriett Tubman -Hero of the abolitionist movement Secretly returned to the South 19 times in order to leave other slaves to freedom
  • Uncle Tom's Cabin

    -Harriett Beecher Stowe
    Fictional book that showed the horrors and evil side of slavery to the public
    Motivated abolitionists
  • Kansas-Nebraska Act

    -Allowed free and previously unorganized territories of Kansas and Nebraska to vote on the issue of slavery - popular sovereignty
    -Repealed the Missouri Compromise
    -Settlers began to move into the area at a rapid pace
    -Became known as “Bleeding Kansas”
    *Conflict between pro slavery settlers and abolitionist settlers
    *A lot of blood shed
  • Birth of the Republican Party

    Group of Democrats, Whigs, and Free Soilers formed the Republican Party
    Opposed the extension of slavery into new territories
  • Brooks-Sumner Affair

    -Preston Brooks v. Charles Sumner
    -Charles Sumner opposed the Kansas Nebraska Act – gave a 2 day speech attacking senators who wrote the act
    -SC Senator Preston Brooks attacked Sumner with a heavy cane, almost killing him
    -Sumner was absent from the Senate for three years while he recovered
    Example of slavery issue and how tensions were getting stronger
  • Dredd Scott Case

    -Dred Scott taken into free territory for 4 years
    -His owner died and Scott sued for his freedom
    -Supreme Court ruled he could not sue because he was a slave and not a citizen
    -Struck down the Missouri Compromise
    -Can not declare slaves free from their owners without due process of law
    Violation of the 5th amendment
  • Lincoln Douglas Debates

    -Abraham Lincoln (R) v. Stephen Douglas (D) for US Senate in Illinois
    Public debates
    Lincoln opposed slavery
    Douglas believed slavery could not be implemented without laws to govern it
  • Freeport Doctrine

    Stephen Douglas
    -During the debates with Lincoln, Lincoln asked Douglas to choose between the Kansas-Nebraska Act (popular sovereignty) OR the Dred Scott case
    Douglas issued the Freeport Doctrine:
    If a territory does not pass slave laws, no slavery can exist
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    John Brown's Raid

    -John Brown was an abolitionist – hated slavery
    -Attacked federal arsenal at Harper’s Ferry
    -Attempted to seize weapons to arm slaves for an uprising
    -Attempt failed
    -Brown was hanged
    Southern resentment of the abolitionist movement intensified
  • Election of 1860

    Douglas, Lincoln, Breckinridge run
    -Lincoln wins election with no southern electoral votes
    Pledges to stop the spread of slavery but to not interfere in the south
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    -As a result of Lincoln’s victory in the Election of 1860, southern states begin to succeed from the union.
    -Succeed = withdrawal
    -South Carolina was the first state to succeed on December 20, 1860
    By February 1861, six other states joined them: Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, Louisiana, Texas