Civil rights movement

Rights for Black Americans

  • The Slave Trade

    The Slave Trade
    Slavery came into the colonies in the 1700s. They were used for labor especially growing tobacco. Slave labor provided an economic boost for American.
  • The Stono Rebellion

    The Stono Rebellion
    It was orginized by slaves in Charleston, South Carolina who tried to flee to Florida for freedom. This was the earliest act against slavery.
  • The NorthWest Ordinance of 1787

    The NorthWest Ordinance of 1787
    Excluded slavery of the Ohio River. The first document containing a prohibition of slavery.
  • 3/5 Compromise

    3/5 Compromise
    This act said that 3/5 of every slave would be counted as population for representitives and taxation.
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    Slavery through the Early 1800s

    • cotton crop was the major product in the South
    • the rise of manufactoring in England created a need for cotton
    • the cost of slaves grew greatly during this time
    • slaves kept many of their traditions such as marriage, singing and dancing
  • MIssouri Compromise

    MIssouri Compromise
    This allowed Maine into the Union as a free state, while MIssouri can enter as a slave state. It also used the 36, 30 paralell as a border. States below this line could be admitted as slave states, and states above it would be free states
  • The Wilmont Proviso

    The Wilmont Proviso
    This act tried to ban the spread of slavery into the new territories that were to be aquired from the Mexican American War. This act was not passed by congress. The faliure of the act showed the disagreements about the expansion of slavery
  • The Compromise of 1850

    The Compromise of 1850
    These sets of acts admitted California as a free state. It abolished the slave trade. 2 new territories were created, but it was not decided whether or not they would be slave or free. The Fugitive Slave Act was also passed. This act made northerners help find runaway slaves. It was very muched disliked by the northerners.
  • The Kanas-Nebraska Act

    The Kanas-Nebraska Act
    This act overturned the Missouri Compromise. This act said that Kansas and Nebraska would be divided up into two seperate states. It also said that states wanting to be admitted would decide whether or not they would be a slave state bu a vote. This act allowed for an expansion of slavery.
  • The Dred Scott Decision

    The Dred Scott Decision
    Dred Scott was a slave who moved with his master to a free state. This case delt with whether or not he was free. The court ruled that Scott was still a slave. With this decision the court said that black people were not citizens and could not petition the court. It also said that congress could not prohibit slavery in the territories, overturning the Northwest Ordinence and the Missouri Compromise
  • Emancipation Proclamation Given

    Emancipation Proclamation Given
    Abraham Lincoln gives a speech in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. The speech said that if Confederate States did not return to the Union by January 1, 1863, all the slaves in those states would be freed from Confederate control.
  • The 14th Amendment

    The 14th Amendment
    This act made slavery illegal
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    Knights of Labor

    The Knights of Labor was one of the only labor unions that allowed African American to join. This was important because it gave African Americans more equality in the work force. They supported temperance, equal pay for women, a graduated income tax, and an end to convict labor. They were involved in the Haymarket Square incident. They were blamed for the instancem and were discredited.
  • 15th Amendment Passes

    15th Amendment Passes
    The 15th Amendment prohibts any state government from denying a person the right to vote because of his or her race.
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    Jim Crow Laws

    These were laws tha seperated whites and blaccks in public areas. These laws liited amfrican american's rights in society. An example is the segregation of bathrooms and water fountains. They restricted civil liberties.
  • US v. Reese

    This supreme court case said that blacks had the ability to vote, but they were not exempt from poll taxes and literacy tests. This case upheld the states actions, making it harder for African Americans to vote.
  • Tuskegee University Founded

    Tuskegee University Founded
    Booker T. Washington fouded the Tuskegee University as a place where African Americans could go to get a higher education. Washington was a former slaver who worked his way up to the top, and believed that other other ex-slaves should do the same.
  • Lynchings of African Americans

    Lynchings of African Americans
    This was the year that had the most lynchings of African Americans was recorded. During the 1890's many African Americans were lynched. They were slowly gettng their rights back, and the white sooutherners felt threated, so they did they thought was best, They lynched the peole in town squares to get attention and scare African Americans so that they would stay away fir the voting booths.
  • Plessy v. Ferguson

    Plessy was a mullato and he was forced to sit in the black part of the bus. He was upset so he sued the bus coompany. This case went to the Supreme Court and it was decided the "seperate but equal" facilities were constitutional. This made segregation okay.
  • Founding of the NAACP

    Founding of the NAACP
    It is the oldest and most influencal civil rights office. It fights for the right of African American people. W.E.B DuBoise founded the NAACP.
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    World War One

    50,000 African Americans fought in France in all black units with the hope that after the war they would be acceoted into American society. But upon return they found that nothing had change and went back to the unfair times.
  • National Womens Party

    National Womens Party
    The national womens party absorbed many african american women who wanted to vote. They participated in the marches and picketts.
  • African Americans Move North

    African Americans Move North
    During the war the demand for labor increased and African Americans moved North to fill the gaps. This caused tension and riots. major riots happend in Chicago and St. Lewis.
  • KKK Membership Increases

    KKK Membership Increases
    The KKK reappeared after WWII. They broaded their membership because they now were against anyone who was not a WASP.
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    Harlem Renaissance

    During these years, African American art forms became main stream. Jazz music began, and many black authors got published. Langston Hughes was extremely popular. This was the golden age for many African Americans.
  • Transition of the Black Vote

    In the election of 1932 many African Americans switched political parties. They had been voting for the republicans since Abraham Lincoln, but in this election, most blacks voted for Roosevelt. Since that election, African Americans have been a main part of the democratic party,
  • Wartime Migrations

    During the war, many African Americans left the south. Many went to the north to work in factories and supply the war. Others moved out west and farmed. The movement caused for many racial tensions in cities.
  • Negro March on Washington

    Negro March on Washington
    The Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters threatened a massive march todemand the Amfrican Americans recieve equal opportunites in the armed forces and in work. Roosevelt responded saying that blacks would not be discriminated against.
  • Blacks in the Army

    Blacks in the Army
    African Americans were allowed to serve in WWII in segregated units. They were also eligable to be drafted. Being able to serve in the military was a large step to blacks gaining equality.
  • Fair Employment Practices Commission

    Fair Employment Practices Commission
    President Roosevelt made this committe in response to the March on Washington. The FEPC required companies with government to not discriminate based on race or religion.
  • Double V Campaign

    Double V Campaign
    After America entered the war, African Americans believed that it was a good time to fight for equality. Double V called for a victory against fasicism abroad and racism at home. During the war NAACP membership rose to over 500,000. The Congress of Racial Equality was founded in 1942 to fight for black rights.
  • Brown v. Board of Education

    Brown v. Board of Education
    This was the court case that declared that state laws that were establishing seperate public schools for white and black students was unconstitutional. After the case schools were forced to integrate.
  • Montgomery Bus Boycott

    Montgomery Bus Boycott
    This all started when Rosa Parks refused to move her seat for a white woman. Parks was later arrested and the boycott began. The whole town (blacks) would ride their bikes and carpool instead of taking the bus. The buses lost much service because of this and this boycott led to the Supreme COurt outlawing segregation on buses
  • Emmett Till Murder

    Emmett Till Murder
    Emmett Till was a 14 year old from Chicago. In 1955 he traveled to Money, Mississippi to visit his cousins. One day he and his cousins went into a store that was owned by a white couple. Supposively, Emmett Till said something to the white woman that offended her. So, when she went home she told her husband what had happened. That night he searched for Emmett and when he found him he brutally beat him up and threw him into a river. This case becomes known nationwide, and calls for reform.
  • Sit-ins

    Sit-ins was when blacks would sit at a restaurant or a white facility and expect to be served and treated well. The first sit in was in Woolworth's in 1960 which inspired many cities to do this. Because of this technique cities started to desegregate.
  • Freedom Rides

    Freedom Rides
    This was when black students from the North would travel through cities in the South on buses where they would sit in the front of the bus. They would refuse to move out of their seats for a white and they would travel out of the bus first. This angered many whites and many riots broke out because of this.
  • Birmingham

    Birmingham at the time was the most violent city in the nation. So, blacks started to have peaceful protests. The blacks were attacked by dogs and white. Eugeen "Bull: O'conner was a very racist police commissioner in Birmingham. The campaign used "The CHildren's Crusade" to case nation wide attention. Children would leave school and protest and be thrown in jail.
  • March on Washington

    March on Washington
    This was an march in Washington, DC with 200,000 to 300,000 people. THe orginazations there were CORE, SNCC, SCLC, and NAACP. THere were many speeches and this tried to convince Kennedy to pass his civil rights bill that he promised.
  • Freedom Summer

    Freedom Summer
    The Freedom Summer was a voting rights campaign whose goal was to register voters in Mississippi. This was led by black and white college students . Three civil rights workers were lynched because of this.
  • Civil Rights Act

    Civil Rights Act
    This act passed by LBJ bans discrimination in public accommodations, schools and housing. It outlawed bias in federal programs. It also made the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission to ensure hiring procedures were not based on race.
  • Selma Marches

    Selma Marches
    These were three marches in Alabama from Selma to Montgomery. The First March was called "Bloody Sunday" because of the violent whites. THe second march, they only walked to the bridge of Selma, prayed, and walked back. THe third march was very successful.
  • The Assissination of Malcolm X

    The Assissination of Malcolm X
    Malcolm X was a civil rights leader that was apart of the nation of Islam. He was a man that promoted separatism and wanted to build black institutions. He also wanted reparations which were payment from the whites for putting their ancestors though slavery. He was assassinated by a person from the Islam in 1965.
  • Watts Riot

    Watts Riot
    This was a 6 days riot in LA in the summer of 1965. There was burning of buidlings, cops being shot, and many injuries. These riots continued to break out during this time even though Martin Luther King did not approve of them.
  • Voting Rights Act

    Voting Rights Act
    This act was passed by Lyndon B. Johnson and it prohibited states from abridging the right to vote based on sex or race. It specifically mentioned literacy tests.
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    The Black Panthers

    The Black Panthers was a violent civil rights organization. It was led by Bobby Seale and Huey Newton. They urged blacks to defend themselves and to use force if necessary. They also astablished a "Free Breakfast Program" which gave poor black students breakfast before going to school.
  • Assassination of MLK

    Assassination of MLK
    MLK was shot on the balcony in Tennesse in his hotel that he was staying in. After his murder many people were afraid that a race war would break out