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Post- WWII

By Baylib
  • Earl Warren Supreme Court

    Earl Warren Supreme Court
    was a prominent 20th century leader of American politics and law. Elected California governor in 1942, Warren secured major reform legislation during his three terms in office. After failing to claim the Republican nomination for the presidency, he was appointed the 14th chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court in 1953. The landmark case of his tenure was Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954), in which the Court unanimously determined the segregation of schools to be unconstitutional.
  • Albert Sabin

    Albert Sabin
    Dr. Sabin was born in Bialystok, Poland. His family Migrated to the U.S in 1921. He received his M.D. from New York University in 1931 and immediately began research on polio, an acute viral infection that can cause death or paralysis and which had, at the time, reached epidemic proportions both nationwide and around the globe.Dr. Sabin joined the staff of the Rockefeller Institute in New York City in 1935. developed an injectable vaccine to prevent polio; developed an oral vaccine for polio
  • Warren Burger Supreme Court

    Warren Burger Supreme Court
    In 1969, President Richard Nixon named Warren Burger chief justice of the Supreme Court. He didn't fulfill Nixon's desire to reverse Warren Court decisions (1953-1969). Burger's court upheld the 1966
    Miranda decision, Burger voted with the majority in the court's landmark 1973 decision, Roe v. Wade, establishing women's constitutional right to have abortions. He was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1988.Warren Burger died in his sleep on June 25, 1995, from congestive heart failure.
  • Jack Ruby

    Jack Ruby
    On November 24, 1963, Jack Ruby Dallas nightclub operator, stunned America when he shot and killed Lee Harvey Oswald the accused assassin of President John Kennedy.November 22, Kennedy was fatally shot in Dallas. Oswald was soon arrested for the president’s murder. As the suspect was being transferred jail, Ruby stepped out of a crowd & gunned down the younger man. The event was witnessed by millions of Americans on live TV. He was convicted of murder in 1964.Waiting for a new conviciton he died
  • Rosa Parks

    Rosa Parks
    the national civil rights movement was on December 1, 1955 that Rosa made her famous stand (while sitting) on the bus. Rosa had settled in her seat on the bus after a hard day's work. All the seats on the bus had filled up when a white man boarded. The bus driver told Rosa and some other African-Americans to stand up. Rosa refused. The bus driver said he would call the police. Rosa didn't move. Soon the police showed up and Rosa was arrested. Rosa Park's role in the NAACP caused more trouble.
  • Dr.Jonas Salk

    Dr.Jonas Salk
    Salk was a doctor who figured out how to make a vaccine that kept people from getting polio.Paralytic polio is a disease that is caused by a virus, In the late 1940s, an organization now called the March of Dimes gave Dr. Salk money to study the virus and figure out how to stop people from catching it. He thought that if he killed the polio virus with a chemical and then put it into a vaccine, the body would develop defenses against it, like a germ-fighting army, without making people sick.
  • Malcom X

    Malcom X
    Malcolm X was a defender of African Americans' civil rights. He was the leader of the Nation of Islam, Malcolm believed that African Americans should not be afraid to do whatever it takes to defend their rights, including the use of violence. He said that blacks & whites should try to live together in peace. But Malcolm X did not live long enough to pursue that dream. In 1965, he was killed during a meeting in New York City. Malcolm X remains, an important hero for many African Americans.
  • Ike Turner

    Ike Turner
    R&B legend Ike Turner was born in Clarksdale, Mississippi,& grew up playing the blues.Ike Turner is a very important man in American music. The texture and flavor of R & B owe a lot to him. He defined how to put the Fender bass into that music & is founder of rock n roll In 1956, he met Anna Mae Bullock. He married her,helped create Tina Turner. The two became the Ike & Tina Turner & created several R&B hits, T Turner died of a cocaine overdose on December 12, 2007, in San Marcos, California.
  • Little Richard

    Little Richard
    Born Richard Wayne Penniman in Macon, Georgia, Little Richard helped define the early rock ‘n’ roll era of the 1950s with his driving, flamboyant sound. With his croons, wails and screams, he turned songs like “Tutti-Frutti” and “Long Tall Sally” into huge hits and influenced such bands as the Beatles.He announced that he got a sign from God to quit the music business. He enrolled at Oakwood College to study theology and ended his contract with Specialty Records in 1959. Made a comeback in 1964
  • Elvis

    Elvis
    Memphis-born singer whose youth, voice, and sex appeal helped popularize rock 'n' roll in the mid-1950s. Commonly known using only his first name, he was an icon of popular culture, in both music and film famous. He fused black rhythm and blues with white bluegrass and country styles; created a new musical idiom known forever after as rockabilly contract bought from Sun Records by RCA for an unheard of $35,000. Famous for "you ain't nothing but a houndog" "heartbreak hotel" was his first single
  • Lee Harvey Oswald

    Lee Harvey Oswald
    Lee Harvey Oswald was a former U.S. Marine who was accused of killing President JFK. While in police custody, Oswald was murdered by Jack Ruby.On the afternoon of November 22, 1963 Oswald was seen on the sixth floor of his work building, around the time of President John F. Kennedy’s approaching motorcade through Dallas holding a rifle, he allegedly assassinated President J.F.K on November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas. While being taken to county jail,two days later Oswald was killed by Jack Ruby.
  • Smith act

    Smith act
    Required fingerprinting and regulating of all aliens in the US. It made it a crime to teach or advocate the violent overthrow of the government. The basis of later prosecutions of members of the Communist and Socialist Workers parties.U.S. federal law passed in 1940 that made it a criminal offense to advocate the violent overthrow of the government or to organize or be a member of any group or society devoted to such advocacy. All non-citizen adults register with government overthrow the U.S gov
  • G.I Bill

    G.I Bill
    Created for returning WWII veterans, the G.I. Bill was created in 1944 and provided a range of benefits, including education, training, loans, unemployment compensation, and job counseling, for American soldiers.The creation of the G.I. Bill resulted in increased
    access to education for veterans, a demonstration of benefits to a college education for veterans' children, and the incorporation of students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds into upper class dominated universities.
  • Iron Curtain

    Iron Curtain
    The guarded border between the countries of the Soviet bloc, the sphere of influence of the Soviet Union, & the rest of Europe. The idea of the 'Iron Curtain' was made famous in a speech by the former British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, on March 5, 1946, at Westminster College in Missouri, he condemned the Soviet Union’s policies in Europe. Churchill's speech was seen by Soviet leader Joseph Stalin as “war mongering” and it signaled the beginning of the Cold War against the Soviet Union.
  • Period: to

    Contemporary

  • Atomic Bomb

    Atomic Bomb
    The Atomic Bomb is a nuclear weapon that suddenly releases the energy in the nucleus of certain types of atoms in the form of a nuclear explosion that has the power to destroy a city and kill every person in it. The Atomic Bomb was developed during WW2 by scientists working on the top secret Manhattan Project.The United States with the authorization of President Harry Truman, dropped an atomic bomb on the people of Hiroshima, Japan on August 6, 1945 and one on Nagasaki, Japan on August 9, 1945.
  • Period: to

    Cold War

  • Robert Johnson

    Robert Johnson
    Robert L. Johnson was born on April 8, 1946, in Hickory, Mississippi. Johnson founded Black Entertainment Television (BET) in 1979 w/ his wife, Sheila. He became the first African-American billionaire after selling the network to Viacom in 2001. Johnson has started a new business, the RLJ Companies, and has invested in an NBA team, a film company, and political causes and campaigns.In addition to his business ventures, Johnson has involved himself in politics by organzing a trip to Liberia
  • Joseph McCarthy

    Joseph McCarthy
    An American politician who served as a Republican U.S. Senator from the state of Wisconsin in 1947 until 1957. 1950, McCarthy became the most public face of a period of intense anti-communist suspicion inspired by the tensions of the Cold War.He made claims that were large numbers of Communists and Soviet spies and sympathizers inside the federal gov & elsewhere. The term "McCarthyism," coined in 1950 in reference to McCarthy's practices, was soon applied to similar anti-communist pursuits.
  • Marshall Plan

    Marshall Plan
    The Marshall Plan was a US-financed relief package,providing funds to European nations to assist their reconstruction after the devastation of WW2. The Plan was essential to the success of the US policy of containment.The plan was proposed by US Secretary of State George C. Marshall, followed President Truman's speech to Congress & can be termed "Truman Doctrine - Phase II". The Marshall Plan was devised in response to the economic ruin & political chaos in many European countries following WW2.
  • Fair deal

    Fair deal
    A "Fair Deal" is what President Harry Truman called his plan. He announced it in a speech on January 5, 1949. His Deal recommended that all Americans have health insurance, minimum wage is increased, & by law, all Americans guaranteed equal rights. Truman also proposed the Fair Employment Practices Act, which would outlaw racial & religious discrimination in hiring. Congress passed the Employment Act in 1946 clearly stating the government's responsibility in helping to achieve full employment.
  • Beat Generation

    Beat Generation
    American writers who came to prominence in the 1950s, as well as the cultural phenomena that they wrote about. Central elements of "Beat" culture include a rejection of mainstream American values, experimentation with drugs & alternate forms of sexuality, and an interest in Eastern spirituality. It was a literary movement started by a group of authors whose work explored & influenced American culture & politics in the post-World War II era. The bulk of their work was published and popularized
  • Period: to

    1950's

  • Korean War (The forgotten War)

    Korean War (The forgotten War)
    The Korean War began when North Korea invaded South Korea. The conflict was fought between Soviet-backed communist North Korea and China against the U.S & the UN-backed South Korea. The U.N troops, the majority from the U.S, were under the command of General Douglas MacArthur. Reinforcements from the communist Republic of China joined the North Koreans & the conflict ended and a truce was signed on July 27, 1953 formally ending the war in Korea. North and South Korea remained separate,
  • Bill Haley and the Comets

    Bill Haley and the Comets
    In 1954 bandleader Bill Haley & His Comets recorded “Rock Around the Clock,” a rock & roll anthem that stayed at Number One for eight weeks and sold an estimated twenty-five million copies worldwide.rock ‘n’ roll was virtually an underground movement, something kids listened to on the sly,” wrote journalist Alex Frazer-Harrison. “This changed after ‘Rock Around the Clock.’ The music was everywhere.”The year 1962 saw the breakup of the Comets. Yet Bill Haley & His Comets found steady work again.
  • Brown v. Board of Education

    Brown v. Board of Education
    On May 17, 1954 the United States Supreme Court handed down its ruling in the landmark case of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas. The Court’s unanimous decision overturned provisions of the 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson decision, which allowed for “separate but equal” public facilities, including public schools in the United States. Declaring that “separate educational facilities are inherently unequal,”Brown v. Board of Education was one of the cornerstones of the civil rights movement,
  • Polio Vaccine

    Polio Vaccine
    A vaccine that is made from a suspension of poliovirus types that are inactivated (killed) with formalin. Abbreviated IPV. IPV is given by injection. polio vaccine, killed See polio vaccine, inactivated. One of the two polio vaccines that are available: oral polio vaccine (OPV) & inactivated polio vaccine (IPV). OPV was formerly recommended for children in the US but was shown to actually cause polio in extremely rare cases and is no longer recommended. IPV is given as a shot in the arm or leg.
  • Period: to

    Civil Rights

  • Oprah Winfrey

    Oprah Winfrey
    Oprah is an American media proprietor, talk show host, and producer. She is best known for her talk show The Oprah Winfrey Show, which was the highest-rated television program of its kind in history and was nationally syndicated from 1986 to 2011 in Chicago, Illinois. Dubbed the "Queen of All Media" she has been ranked the richest African-American and is currently North America's first and only multi-billionaire black person she was recruited by a Chicago TV station to host her own morning show.
  • Little Rock 9

    Little Rock 9
    In 1896, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that it was legal for schools to be segregated. This meant that there could be schools just for white children & schools just for black children. The schools for black children were not as good and people thought this was unfair. Despite the new ruling of the Supreme Court, some schools in the South did not allow black children. In Little Rock, Arkansas, a plan was put together to slowly integrate the schools, but it allowed for integration very slowly
  • civil rights act of 1957

    civil rights act of 1957
    Passed into law at the beginning of the Civil Rights Movement on September 9, 1957. The Civil Rights Act of 1957 did not create new rights, but it prohibited attempts to intimidate or prevent persons from voting and laid the foundation for federal enforcement of civil rights law including civil lawsuits. The Act created the Civil Rights Division in the Department of Justice and gave it the power to seek court injunctions against anyone interfering with the right to vote. Comission incresed.
  • New Frontier

    New Frontier
    The campaign program advocated by JFK in the 1960 election. He promised to revitalize the stagnant economy and enact reform legislation in education, health care, and civil rights.JFK's program for change in which he issued a challenge to the American people, calling upon them to make sacrifices to achieve their potential greatness; included space exploration, public service initiatives such as the peace corps, a commitment to civil rights and fiscal policies to revitalize the economy.
  • Hippies

    Hippies
    believed in anti-materialism, free use of drugs, they had a casual attitude toward sex and anti-conformity, (the 1960s) practiced free love and took drugs, flocked to San Francisco- low rent/interracial, they lived in communal "crash pads", smoked marijuana and took LSD, sexual revolution, new counter culture, Protestors who influenced US involvement in Vietnam Opposed the Vietnam War In favour of sexual liberation & embraced non-christian faith
    PEACE, LOVE, PERSONAL FREEDOM, fought for rights
  • Period: to

    1960's

  • Peace Corps

    Peace Corps
    The Peace Corps was officially established during the presidency of J.F.K. The Peace Corps organization sent young Americans to perform humanitarian services in under developed countries. The Peace Corps program was aimed at helping developing nations by addressing challenges in agriculture, education, environment, health, youth development and community economic development. Peace Corps volunteers were given training before spending two years in countries that had requested assistance.
  • Kennedy’s speech at Rice University

    Kennedy’s speech at Rice University
    In 1962 in Kennedy's speech called for the US to put a man on the moon before the decade was out, Kennedy gave perhaps his most inspirational call: "we choose to go to the moon. We choose to go to the moon in this decade... not because [it is] easy, but because [it is] hard, because that goal will serve to organize and measure the best of our energies and skills, because that challenge is one that we are willing to accept, one we are unwilling to postpone and one which we intend to win"
  • Feminism

    Feminism
    While the first-wave feminism of the 19th and early 20th centuries focused on women's legal rights, such as the right to vote, the second-wave feminism of the “women's movement” peaked in the 1960s and '70s and touched on every area of women's experience—including family, sexuality, and work.the lives of women in developed countries changed dramatically life expectancies increased dramatically, and the growth of the service sector opened up thousands of jobs not dependent on physical strength.
  • Assassination of JFK

    Assassination of JFK
    The following day, 22 November 1963, President Kennedy was travelling in an open top car through the streets of Dallas when three loud rifle shots rang through the air, apparently shot from the sixth floor of the nearby Book Depository building. the first of these bullets missed its mark, while the second penetrated the back of the President’s neck.His steel bone neck brace allowed the final, fatal shot to strike the back of his head the impact of the third bullet had killed him instantly.
  • Daisy Girl Ad

    Daisy Girl Ad
    a freckled, brown-eyed girl unmistakably a redhead even though the scene is in black and white counts as she plucks petals from a daisy on an idyllic August day in New York City's Highbridge Park.
    When she gets to 10, a chilling voice-over countdown begins. The frame freezes & the camera zooms into a close-up of the child's eye. As the countdown hits zero, a nuclear bomb detonates with a mushroom cloud."These are the stakes," says President Johnson. A narrator implores voters to support ­Johnson
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964

    Civil Rights Act of 1964
    The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was the beginning of the final expansion of freedoms for many people. In the years to follow, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 was passed, which removed any of the previous requirements set in place by local governments requiring literacy tests to be passed before being allowed to vote.The Civil Rights Act of 1964 became the turning point in American history for Black Americans but also led to the fair treatment of other minorities and women. It removed Federal dollar
  • Anti-War Movement

    Anti-War Movement
    The U.S. war in Vietnam triggered the most tenacious anti-war movement in U.S. history, beginning w/ the start of the bombing of North Vietnam in 1964 & the introduction of combat troops the following year.Young people become radicalized in a largely nonviolent, diverse & sometimes inchoate popular culture of war resistance, Anti-war activities, particularly large-scale resistance to military conscription, forced an end U.S. combat operations in Vietnam and a suspension of the draft by Jan 1973.
  • Voting Rights Act of 1965

    Voting Rights Act of 1965
    The Voting Rights Act of 1965 was signed into law by President Lyndon Johnson to safeguard the right to vote of Black Americans & ban the use of literacy tests. The 1965 Act addressed the voting issues that had not been covered in the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The Civil Rights movement had launched voting registration campaign in Selma, Alabama and five months after the Selma Freedom Marches, President Lyndon B. Johnson sent a voting rights bill to Congress. The law had an immediate impact.
  • Black Panther Party

    Black Panther Party
    The Black Panther Party, was a political organization founded in 1966 by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale to challenge police brutality against the African American community. Dressed in all black the Black Panthers organized armed citizen patrols of Oakland & other U.S. cities. In 1968, the Black Panther Party had roughly 2,000 members. The organization later declined as a result of internal tensions, deadly shootouts and FBI counterintelligence activities aimed at weakening the organization.
  • My Lai Massacre

    My Lai Massacre
    occurred in South Vietnam during the Vietnam War on March 16, 1968. The My Lai Massacre saw the mass killing of unarmed South Vietnamese people Efforts were made to cover up the atrocity and subsequent investigations were labeled a whitewash. This massacre was under the The My Lai Massacre led to the court-martial of Calley in September 1969 who was charged with 109 murders & sentenced to life in jail. He was released three years later after intervention by President Richard Nixon, led by Calley
  • Death of MLK

    Death of MLK
    In the early evening of April 4, 1968, Martin Luther King, Jr. was killed by a single shot which struck his face & neck. He was standing on the balcony of the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee, where he had come to lead a peaceful march in support of striking sanitation workers. About an hour later, he was pronounced dead at St. Joseph Hospital.His assassination led to an outpouring of anger among black Americans, for an equal housing this was the last achievement of the civil rights
  • Stonewall Riot

    Stonewall Riot
    On June 28, 1969, New York City police raided the Stonewall Inn, a gay club located in Greenwich Village in New York City. The raid sparked a riot among bar patrons & neighborhood residents as police roughly hauled employees & patrons out of the bar, leading to 6 days of protests and violent clashes with law enforcement outside the bar on Christopher Street & nearby Christopher Park. The Stonewall Riots served as a catalyst for the gay rights movement in the United States and around the world.
  • Period: to

    1970's

  • Watergate Hotel

    Watergate Hotel
    The Watergate scandal began early in the morning of June 17, 1972, when several burglars were arrested in the office of the Democratic National Committee, located in the Watergate complex of buildings in Washington, D.C. This was no ordinary robbery: The prowlers were connected to President Richard Nixon’s reelection campaign, and they had been caught wiretapping phones and stealing documents. Nixon took steps to cover up the crime afterwards, and in August 1974, after being caught he resigned
  • Equal Rights Amendment

    Equal Rights Amendment
    The Equal Rights Amendment provided the legal equality of the sexes and prohibit discrimination on the basis of sex. More than four decades later, the revival of feminism in the late 1960s spurred its introduction into Congress. Under the leadership of U.S. Representative Bella Abzug of NY and feminists Betty Friedan and Gloria Steinem, won the requisite two-thirds vote from the U.S. House of Representatives in October 1971. In March 1972, it was approved by the U.S. Senate & sent to the states.
  • war powers resolution act

    war powers resolution act
    The War Powers Act is a congressional resolution designed to limit the U.S. president’s ability to initiate or escalate military actions. Among other restrictions, the law requires that presidents notify Congress after deploying the armed forces and limits how long units can remain engaged w/out congressional approval. Enacted in 1973 w/ the goal of avoiding another lengthy conflict its effectiveness has been questioned & several presidents have been accused of failing to comply to regulations.
  • Roe v. Wade

    Roe v. Wade
    The case of Roe v Wade was first argued on December 13, 1971 Until , the right to regulate abortion was reserved to the states. This changed with the 1973 Supreme Court landmark decision in the case of Roe v Wade which ruled that state governments could not regulate abortion during the first three months until the end of the first trimester of pregnancy. This period of time that was interpreted as being within a woman’s constitutional right to privacy and protected by the Fourteenth Amendment
  • Heritage Foundation

    Heritage Foundation
    The Heritage Foundation has been working to advance the principles of free enterprise, limited government, individual freedom, traditional American values, and a strong national defense.issued policy proposals and attacked liberal legislation and the permissive culture they claimed it had spawned; Conservative think-tank ideological interest group Followers of Buckley & Friedman envisioned themselves as crusaders, working against one conservative called "the despotic aspects of egalitarianism."
  • Endangered Species Act

    Endangered Species Act
    President Richard Nixon declared current species conservation efforts the Endangered Species Act of 1973, which was signed by Nixon on December 28, 1973 It was written by a team of lawyers and scientists, including Dr. Russell E. Train, the first appointed head of the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ), an outgrowth of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969.[17][18] Dr. Train was assisted by a core group of staffers. This is one of a few dozens of the US environmental laws.
  • Nixon resignation

    Nixon resignation
    President Richard M. Nixon announces his intention to become the first president in American history to resign. With impeachment proceedings underway against him for his involvement in the Watergate affair, Nixon was finally bowing to pressure from the public and Congress to leave the White House.“By taking this action,” he said in a solemn address from the Oval Office, “I hope that I will have hastened the start of the process of healing which is so desperately needed in America left afterward
  • Gerald Ford’s Presidency

    Gerald Ford’s Presidency
    Gerald Ford had been the first Vice President chosen under the terms of the Twenty-fifth Amendment & in the aftermath of the Watergate scandal, was succeeding the first President ever to resign. Ford was confronted with almost insuperable tasks. There were the challenges of mastering inflation, reviving a depressed economy, solving chronic energy shortages, and trying to ensure world peace.Ford continued with Nixon's effort on foreign relations and while in the process more treaties were created
  • Federal Election Commission (FEC)

    Federal Election Commission (FEC)
    A six-member bipartisan agency created by the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1974. The federal Election Commission administers and enforces campaign finance laws.Created in 1974 through amendments to the Federal Election Campaign Act, the commission describes its duties as "to disclose campaign finance information, to enforce the provisions of the law such as the limits and prohibitions on contributions, and to oversee the public funding of Presidential elections."3 Democrats & 3 Republicans
  • Black Entertainment Television (BET)

    Black Entertainment Television (BET)
    American cable television network and multimedia group providing news, entertainment, and other programming developed primarily for African American viewers. BET also operates a channel geared toward African American women, Centric; features contemporary and 20th-century popular music through BET Gospel, BET Hip-Hop, BET James, and BET Soul; produces documentaries and movies for distribution on the BET channel; and sponsors the BET Awards. The company’s headquarters are in Washington, D.C.
  • Iran Hostage Crisis

    Iran Hostage Crisis
    The Iran Hostage Crisis erupted when a group of militant Iranian students, stormed the United States Embassy in Teheran & took 53 American hostages. The Iran Hostage Crisis arose following Iran's Islamic Revolution by supporters of Ayatollah Khomeini and the forced exile of the Shah of Iran. On 22 October 1979 President Carter made the decision to allow the exiled Shah into the U.S for medical treatment and this action resulted in Iran Hostage Crisis with demands to extradite the exiled Shah.
  • Period: to

    1980's

  • Election of 1980

    Election of 1980
    The U.S. presidential election of 1980 featured a contest between incumbent President Jimmy Carter and his Republican opponent, Ronald Reagan. Carter was unpopular because of a stagnant economy at home and a deteriorating situation abroad, especially in the Middle East where the Iran hostage crisis and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan had marked serious American setbacks. Reagan, the charismatic ex-Governor of California, capitalized on this unpopularity and won a lopsided victory over Carter.
  • Sandra Day O’Connor

    Sandra Day O’Connor
    Sandra Day O'Connor was the first woman appointed to the U.S. Supreme Court. A Republican, she was considered a moderate conservative & served for 24 years. O'Connor was elected to two terms in Arizona state senate. In 1981 Ronald Reagan nominated her to the U.S. Supreme Court. She received unanimous Senate approval, & made history justice to serve on the nation's highest court. O'Connor was a key swing vote in many important cases, including the upholding of Roe v. Wade. She retired in 2006
  • Jimmy Carter

    Jimmy Carter
    As the 39th president of the United States, Jimmy Carter struggled to respond to formidable challenges, including a major energy crisis as well as high inflation and unemployment. In the foreign affairs arena, he reopened U.S. relations with China and made headway with efforts to broker peace in the historic Arab-Israeli conflict, but was damaged late in his term by a hostage crisis in Iran. “crisis of confidence” and in 1980 he was soundly defeated in the general election by Ronald Reagan.
  • Reagan Presidency

    Reagan Presidency
    When Reagan took office the economy was one of the double-digit inflation and high interest rates. During the campaign Reagan promised to restore the free market from excessive gov regulation & encourage private initiative & enterpriseIn his inaugural address after taking the oath of office on January 20, Reagan called upon Americans to "begin an era of national renewal." In response to the serious problems facing the country, both foreign and domestic, he asserted his familiar campaign phrase:
  • A.I.D.S. Crisis

    A.I.D.S. Crisis
    In the 1980s and early 1990s, the outbreak of HIV and AIDS swept across the United States and rest of the world, though the disease originated decades earlier. Today, more than 70 million people have been infected with HIV and about 35 million have died from AIDS since the start of the pandemic, according to the World Health Organization.The U.S publish a Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report describing cases of a rare infections, in five young, previously healthy, gay men in Los Angeles.
  • Music Television (MTV)

    Music Television (MTV)
    MTV: Music Television goes on the air for the first time ever, with the words (spoken by one of MTV’s creators, John Lack): “Ladies and gentlemen, rock and roll.” The Buggles’ “Video Killed the Radio Star” was the first music video to air on the new cable television channel, MTV went on to revolutionize the music industry & become an influential source of pop culture & entertainment in the U.S & other parts of the world, including Europe, Asia &Latin America, which all have MTV-branded channels.
  • Reagan Doctrine

    Reagan Doctrine
    The Reagan Doctrine was a document by the U.S under the Reagan Administration. It was about being against the global influence of the Soviet Union during the final years of the Cold War. it was the most important document of United States foreign policy from the early 1980s until the end of the Cold War in 1991. The doctrine was the centerpiece of United States foreign policy from the early 1980s until the end of the Cold War in 1991. It states "We must not break faith w/ those who are risking."
  • Iran Contra Affair

    Iran Contra Affair
    The Iran-Contra Affair was a secret U.S. government arms deal that freed some American hostages held in Lebanon but also funded armed conflict in Central America. In addition, the controversial dealmaking—and the ensuing political scandal—threatened to bring down the presidency of Ronald Reagan.Reagan himself was never charged, and, in 1992, George W. Bush, Reagan’s vice president who was elected president in 1988, pardoned Weinberger.Reagan promised voters he would't negotiate w/ terrorist,lied
  • Ronald Reagan

    Ronald Reagan
    a former actor and California governor served as the 40th U.S. president from 1981 to 1989. Born in Illinois he became an actor then governor Dubbed the Great Communicator, the affable Reagan became a popular two-term president. He cut taxes, increased defense spending, negotiated a nuclear arms reduction agreement with the Soviets and is credited with helping to bring a quicker end to the Cold War. Reagan, who survived a 1981 assassination attempt, died at age 93 after battling Alzheimer’s.
  • George H.W. Bush

    George H.W. Bush
    George Herbert Walker Bush served as the 41st U.S. president from 1989 to 1993. He also was a two-term U.S. vice president under Ronald Reagan, from 1981 to 1989. Bush began his political career in the U.S. House of Representatives in 1967. During the 1970s, he held a variety of government posts, including CIA director. In 1988, Bush defeated Democratic rival Michael Dukakis to win the White House. In office, he launched successful military operations against Panama and Iraq he lost popularity
  • fall of the Berlin wall

    fall of the Berlin wall
    The Fall of the Berlin Wall was inadvertently sparked by the reform policies of the Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev. Much of the Berlin Wall was torn down by people as they celebrated the end to a divided Germany. Between November 9, 1989 - June 13, 1989 border controls still existed but were less strict than they had been previously. All border controls ended on July 1, 1990 and Germany was officially reunified into a single country from October 3, 1990. This was the end of Warsaw Pact
  • Period: to

    1990's

  • Persian Gulf War / 1st Iraq War

    Persian Gulf War / 1st Iraq War
    From 1980 to 1988, Iraq had been at war with Iran. During the war, Iraq had built up a powerful army that included over 5k tanks and 1,500,000 soldiers. Building up this army was expensive & Iraq was in debt to the countries of Kuwait & Saudi ArabiaThe Gulf War was fought between Iraq & a coalition of nations that included Kuwait, the U.S, the U.K, France, Saudi Arabia, and more. It began when Iraq invaded Kuwait on August 2, 1990 and ended with a cease fire declared on February 28, 1991.
  • Rodney King Incident

    Rodney King Incident
    Rodney King was caught by the Los Angeles police after a high-speed chase on March 3, 1991. The officers pulled him out of the car and beat him brutally, while amateur cameraman George Holliday caught it all on videotape. The four L.A.P.D. officers involved were indicted on charges of assault with a deadly weapon and excessive use of force by a police officer. However, after a three-month trial, a white jury acquitted the officers, inflaming citizens & sparking the violent 1992 L.A riots.
  • Election of 1992

    Election of 1992
    The United States presidential election of 1992 was on November 3, 1992 in the United States. The three main people running were: George H. W. Bush, a Republican from Texas and the President; Bill Clinton, who was a Democrat and Governor of Arkansas; and Ross Perot an Independent candidate.Bill Clinton was the winner of the election. Clinton got 370 Electoral votes, Bush got 168, and Perot got 0. A person running for president will need to get 270 to win.Bush's lost was for multiple reasons
  • Al Gore

    Al Gore
    A native of Tennessee, Al Gore served as vice president of the United States under President Bill Clinton from 1992 to 2000, after a long tenure in the U.S. House of Representatives and U.S. Senate. He lost a presidential bid to George W. Bush in 2000. In 2007, Gore won a Nobel Prize for his work to raise awareness of global warming.Gore won the nationwide popular vote over George W. Bush by more than 500,000 votes but narrowly lost in the electoral college the first inversion since vote of 1988
  • World Trade Center Attack - 1993

    World Trade Center Attack - 1993
    On February 26, 1993, a small cell of terrorists, with links to a local radical mosque and broader Islamist terror networks, detonated about 1,200 pounds of explosives in a rental van in the underground parking garage at the World Trade Center. The terrorists fled the area after setting the bomb to explode. The explosion created a five-story crater in the sub-grade levels of the towers and undermined the floor of an adjoining hotel.The terrorist attack killed six people.1,000 were injured
  • Welfare Reform

    Welfare Reform
    are changes in the operation of a given welfare system, with the goals of reducing the number of individuals dependent on government assistance, keeping the welfare systems affordable, and assisting recipients become self-sufficient. Classical liberals, libertarians, and conservatives generally argue that welfare and other tax-funded services reduce incentives to work, exacerbate the free-rider problem, and intensify poverty. The Welfare Reform was always debated due to vary of opinions.
  • Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA)

    Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA)
    ‘‘No State, territory, or possession of the United States, or
    Indian tribe, shall be required to give effect to any public act,
    record, or judicial proceeding of any other State, territory, possession, or tribe respecting a relationship between persons of thesame sex that is treated as a marriage under the laws of such
    other State, territory, possession, or tribe, or a right or claim
    arising from such relationship.’’the word ‘marriage’
    means only a legal union between one man and one woman
  • Lewinsky Affair

    Lewinsky Affair
    was an American political sex scandal that involved 49-year-old President Bill Clinton and 22-year-old White House intern Monica Lewinsky. The sexual relationship took place between 1995 and 1997 and came to light in 1998. Clinton ended a televised speech with the statement that he "did not have sexual relations" with Lewinsky. Further investigation led to charges of perjury and to the impeachment of President Clinton in 1998 by the U.S. House of Representatives. Later on he was impeached
  • Bush vs. Gore (SCOTUS case)

    Bush vs. Gore (SCOTUS case)
    In Bush v. Gore a divided Supreme Court ruled that the state of Florida's court-ordered manual recount of vote ballots in the 2000 presidential election was unconstitutional. The case proved to be the climax of the contentious presidential race between Vice President Al Gore & Texas Governor George W. Bush.The outcome of the election hinged on Florida, where Governor Bush led Vice President Gore by about 1,800 votes the morning after Election Day. Due to the close vote Flordia used machine
  • 9/11 Attacks

    9/11 Attacks
    19 militants associated w/ the Islamic extremist group al-Qaeda hijacked four airplanes and carried out suicide attacks against targets in the U.S Two of the planes were flown into the twin towers of the World Trade Center in NYC, a third plane hit the Pentagon just outside Washington, D.C., and the fourth plane crashed in a field in Pennsylvania. Almost 3k people were killed during the 9/11 terrorist attacks, which triggered major U.S. initiatives to combat terrorism & defined George W. Bush.
  • PATRIOT ACT

    PATRIOT ACT
    is an Act of Congress that was signed into law by President George W. Bush on October 26, 2001. With its ten-letter abbreviation (USA PATRIOT) expanded, the full title is “Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001”.The abbreviation, as well as the full title, have been attributed to Chris Kyle, a former staffer on the House Judiciary Committee.Patriot Act allows investigators to use tools that were already there
  • Hurricane Katrina Disaster

    Hurricane Katrina Disaster
    Hurricane Katrina struck the Gulf Coast of the U.S When the storm made landfall, it had a Category 3 rating on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale–it brought sustained winds of 100–140 miles per hour–and stretched some 400 miles across. The storm itself did a great deal of damage, but its aftermath was catastrophic. Levee breaches led to massive flooding, and many people charged that the federal government was slow to meet the needs of the people affected by the storm. Many were displaced.
  • The Great Recession

    The Great Recession
    The Great Recession was a global economic downturn that devastated world financial markets as well as the banking & real estate industries. The crisis led to increases in home mortgage foreclosures worldwide & caused millions of people to lose their life savings,jobs, and homes. It’s generally considered to be the longest period of economic decline since the Great Depression of the 1930s. Although its effects were definitely global in nature, the Great Recession was most pronounced in the U.S
  • John McCain

    John McCain
    John McCain first entered the public spotlight as a Navy fighter pilot during the Vietnam War. Taken prisoner after his plane was shot down, he suffered five and a half years of torture and confinement before his release in 1973. In 1986, he began his long tenure as the U.S. senator from Arizona, a position he holds to this day. McCain ran for president on the Republican ticket in 2008, losing to Democrat Barack Obama in the general election.McCain weathered the scandal and won re-election
  • American Recovery and Reinvestment Act

    American Recovery and Reinvestment Act
    An Act making supplemental appropriations for job preservation & creation, infrastructure investment, energy efficiency & science, assistance to the unemployed, State, & local fiscal stabilization, for the fiscal year ending September 30, 2009, & for other purposes.Making supplemental appropriations for job preservation and creation, infrastructure investment, energy efficiency and science, assistance to the unemployed, other purposes.The Act "is an unprecedented effort to jumpstart our economy,
  • Barack Obama

    Barack Obama
    On November 4, 2008, Senator Barack Obama of Illinois was elected president of the United States over Senator John McCain of Arizona. Obama became the 44th president, and the first African American to be elected to that office. He was subsequently elected to a second term over former Massachusetts governor Mitt Romney. When Obama took office, he inherited a global economic recession, two ongoing foreign wars and the lowest-ever international favorability rating for the U.S. 2017 his term was up
  • First Hispanic SCOTUS judge - Sonia Sotomayor

    First Hispanic SCOTUS judge - Sonia Sotomayor
    Sonia Sotomayor was born on June 25, 1954, in the Bronx borough of New York City. Her desire to be a judge was first inspired by the TV show Perry Mason. She graduated from Yale Law School and passed the bar in 1980. She became a U.S. District Court Judge in 1992 and was elevated to the U.S. Second Circuit Court of Appeals in 1998. In 2009, she was confirmed as the first Latina Supreme Court justice in U.S. history.Nominated by President Barack Obama on May 26, 2009,