Liszt at the piano

Post-Romanticism (1890-1930)

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    John Philip Sousa

    John Philip Sousa promoted the American wind-band tradition here and in Europe: an outgrowth of British military bands
    The Washington Post (1889)
    Semper Fidelis (1888)
    Stars and Stripes Forever (1897)
    El Capitan (1896)
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    Gustav Mahler

    Made important expansions to symphonies and Lieder. Viennese, considered the heir to Mozart and Beethoven. Utilized aspect of the music of non-western cultures.
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    Claude Debussy

    The most important French composer of the early 20th century. Most known for composing the first modern orchestral work. Such as Prelude a "L'apres-midi d'un faune"
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    Richard Strauss

    German, supported Wagner's use of chromaticism that expanded on this trait
    Famous for tone poems and operas
    Most known are Salome 1905 and Elektra 1909
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    Arnold Schönberg

    Austrian composer, theorist, and painter, spent a good deal of time in Vienna
    Created melodies atonality called “tone rows”
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    Maurice Ravel

    French impressionist composer. Credited with writing the first impressionist piano piece.
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    Igor Stravinsky

    Began piano lessons at age 9, harmony and counterpoint
    In 1902 his father died and he met Rimsky-Korsakov, studied privately with him for 3 years
    In 1909, began collaborating with Sergei Diaghilev.
    Russian Period” (up to circa 1920)
    “French Period” (around 1910, living in Paris)
    “Neoclassical Period” (circa 1920-54)
    “Serialist [US] Period” (circa 1954-68)
    The Rite of Spring, 1913 was seen as "ridiculous” and the music “sheer cacophony. . . The work of a madman.”
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    Louis Durey

    Born in Paris –non-musical family
    Instigated the first Les Six album
    Wrote songs for the French Resistance during WWII
    Wrote with Vietnamese themes in the 1960s as a protest to the war
  • Impressionism

    One of the first anti-romantic styles. Disregarded chord progression rules. In paintings it had emphasis on color.
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    Range of cultural products and attitudes emerging in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, after the period of Romanticism
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    The use of extreme chromaticism, sizes of performance groups, extreme use of themes and motives and thick textures
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    Sergei Prokofiev

    Russian composer: orchestral pieces, piano works and film music
    Seven symphonies, suites, incidental music, five piano concertos, two violin concertos, one cello concerto, operas, ballets, choral music, film scores, and other works.
    “Peter and the Wolf” (1936)
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    Arthur Honegger

    Born to Swiss parents – considered himself Swiss
    Huge compositional output in all mediums
    Appreciated the “architecture of music”
    Composed most of his works on commission
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    Darius Milhaud

    Born on the southern coast of France
    Studied Debussy, immediately rejected Impressionism
    Became close friends with Tailleferre – gave her needed encouragement to continue composing
    Traveled to Brazil with Claudel in 1918 – this influenced his compositions
    American Jazz also influenced his work
    Composed Scaramouche for two pianos then arranged for Alto Saxophone and has become a standard repertoire
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    Germaine Tailleferre

    Only female of les six
    Played for kids at their school in her 80s
    Composed lots of harp music at the Paris conservatoire
    Did piano Accompaniment and was very famous throughout Paris
    Wore clothes and jewelry from Coco Chanel herself
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    George Auric

    Born in southern France
    Studied composition in Paris with Satie’s teachers
    Film Music
    Ran SACEM
    Music journalist
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    Francis Poulenc

    Born in Paris to rich parents
    Self-Taught, but had musical tutors
    With Milhaud, traveled to meet Schoenberg, Webern, and Berg, but both rejected their style
    His partner Pierre Bernac (baritone) premiered many of his songs
  • Primitivism

    A sensibility or cultural attitude that has informed diverse aspects of Modern art – it alludes to specific stylistic elements of tribal objects and other non-Western art forms
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    The Second Viennese School

    group of composers that comprised Arnold Schoenberg and his pupils, particularly Alban Berg and Anton Webern, and close associates in early 20th-century Vienna..
  • Expressionism

    Focused on completely freeing music from tonality
    No chord progression rules
  • Pierrot lunaire

    Pierrot lunaire
    Pierrot lunaire genre: song cycle
    21 poems, all from the Belgian symbolist poet Albert Giraud’s Pierrot lunaire
    Divided into 3 sets of 7 poems
    Written for solo voice and 5 instrumentalists:
    Violin, viola
    Flute, piccolo
    Clarinet, bass clarinet
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    World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
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    Neoclassicism in music was a twentieth-century trend, particularly current in the interwar period, in which composers sought to return to aesthetic precepts associated with the broadly defined concept of "classicism", namely order, balance, clarity, economy, and emotional restraint.
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    Les Six

    A group of six composers, five of them French and one Swiss. Together or separately. In 1920 the group published an album of piano pieces together, known as L'Album des Six and 1921 : Les mariés de la tour eiffei
  • Serialism

    Arnold Schoenberg's 12 tone method. The method assumes absolutely equal harmonic and tonal relationships among all 12 notes
    This is the tone row – the pitch order must stay the same
    The piece is composed based on this row, following counterpoint guidelines