Post-Romanitcism 1890-1930

Timeline created by velmarangelica
In Music
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    Composer: Gustav Mahler

    Known for his importance in developing the maximalism style, Mahler was an Austrian composer who composed large orchestral works (5 orchestral song cycles), symphonies, Lieder, and chamber music.
    Famous Works:
    - Kindertontenlieder
    - Das Lied von der Erde
    - Resurrection Symphony
    - Titan Symphony
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    Composer: Isaac Albeniz

    Spanish composer and pianist of the Impressionist style. Composed piano and dramatic works, orchestral works and songs.
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    Composer: Claude Debussy

    French composer and pianist of the Impressionism style. ****Invented impressionism**** Piano works, chamber music, tone poems, stage works, songs.
    Famous works:
    -Clair De Lune
    - La Mer
    - Children's Corner
    - Preludes
    - Nocturnes
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    Composer: Richard Strauss

    Maximalist. Conductor, and composer of tone poems and modern opera, Strauss greatly embellished the first modern styles. Wrote symphonic poems, 15 operas, 150 Lieder, chamber, orchestral, piano and stage works as well as writings.
    Famous Works:
    - Don Juan
    - Don Quixote
    - Elektra
    - Salome
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    Composer: Erik Satie

    Not an impressionist but helped build French aesthetics which impressionism was built upon. Innovator. Composed dramatic works, songs, piano works and writings.
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    Sergei Rachmaniov

    Master of melody, virtuoso pianist and uninterested in nationalism. Composed symphonies, piano concertos, symphonic poems, operas, choral music, piano works, and songs.
    Famous Works:
    - Prelude in c# minor
    - Piano Concerto in c minor #2, Op. 18
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    Composer: Arnold Schoenberg

    Led the way with Expressionism in Germany. The father of 12-tone music, innovator and teacher of Webern and Berg. Composed operas, symphonies, choral and chamber music, songs, canons, piano works, and writings.
    Famous works:
    - Harmonielehre
    - Pierrot Lunaire
    - Variationen fur Orchester
    - Verklarte Nacht
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    Composer: Charles Ives

    American who invented atonality. Worked virtually in isolation. Composed songs, piano works, orchestral sets, symphonies, choral music, band music, chamber music, and writings.
    Famous Works:
    - The Concord Sonata
    - The Unanswered Question
    - Variations on America
    - 114 Songs
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    Composer: Maurice Ravel

    French composer of the Impressionist style. Composed operas, ballets, orchestral, vocal and piano works. Innovator in pianistic style and expert orchestrator.
    Famous Works:
    - Bolero
    - Daphnis et Chloe
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    Composer: Bela Bartok

    Hungarian composer/ pianist. Ethnomusicologist. Composed concertos, piano works, and a multitude of other works.
    Famous Works;
    - Concerto for Orchestra
    - Music for Strings, Percussion and Celesta
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    Composer: Igor Stravinsky

    Stravinsky's musical style was a very malleable and interestingly unique. Composed symphonies, ballets, operas, chamber music, choral music, piano works (remember Disney's Fantasia*?)
    Famous Works:
    - Firebird
    - Petruska
    - The Rake's Progress
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    Composer: Anton von Webern

    Student of Schoenberg (Expressionist). Composer of symphonies, orchestral chamber and choral music, songs, and writings.
    - Symphony Op. 21
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    Composer: Alban Berg

    Another student of Schoenberg (Expressionist). Often atonal and expressive. Composed opera, orchestral works, songs. concertos, chamber music, and writings.
    Famous Works:
    - Lulu
    - Wozzeck
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    Nadia Boulanger

    Teacher of composers in the 20th century. Conductor and composer.
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    Style: Maximalism

    Coined by Richard Taruskin, this era has been used to describe the likes of Mahler and Strauss in the German-speaking eras and includes extreme chromaticism, sizes of performance groups, use of themes and motives, as well as thick textures.This post-romantic style is known as the moment when the end of the 19th century met its extremes just before the catharsis of the expressionism style.
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    Style: Impressionism

    This style of the post-romantic period was known as French and anti-Germanic, highly influenced by the likes of Claude Debussy. Melody is important, but not required to follow expectations and could be randomly placed out of context. Rhythmic vitality was not an aspect of this style. The word vague is mentioned by many sources as it lacks harmonies, harmonic progression rules and brings in a lot of dissonances. The importance was stressed on the color of the sound.
  • Event: Spanish-American War

    This conflict took place during the Maximalist and Impressionist styles and we see the cultural expansion in music directly following.
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    Composer: Francis Poulenc

    French composer of the Les Six whose style was harmonically charming. Composed piano works, choral music, concertos, and chamber music.
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    Style: Expressionism

    This was the most rebellious post-romantic style. The style left all musical expectations behind and had advancements in atonality and strong emotional expression. Chord progression rules were completely out the window. Polyrhythm and polytonality were introduced. The style was of Germanic and Austrian origin. Melody no longer was the focus of a work and music became much more complex and experimental.
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    Style: Undisguised Avant-Garde

    Very rebellious style which greatly mocked and gave bold expression against romanticism.
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    Style: Primitivism

    This style stripped back music to modified core elements and while it had some of the vagueness of the impressionist style, it still had structure and focused on alluding to tribal and non-western art. This style was also considered a blow-back to the first world war with its complexity and overall darkness.
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    Began with the revival of Bach's music and revived interest in the harpsichord. Stravinsky greatly embodied the desire to bring back appreciation to the Baroque and Classic periods.
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    Composer: Samuel Barber

    American composer and accomplished singer. Child prodigy. Composed operas, ballets, orchestral works, choral music, vocal works, chamber music, songs.
    Famous Works:
    - Adagio for Strings
    - Dover Beach
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    Composer: John Cage

    Composer and philosopher. VERY experimental. Changed the definition of music... literally. Center of avant-garde music in the 20th century. "sound organized through time"
    Famous Works:
    - 4:33
    - Solo for Sliding Trombone
    - Music of Changes
    - Sonatas and Interludes
  • Event: Titanic sinks

    On the tail end of the impressionism period, we still see some structure to music in this time but it is beginning to gradually experiment with new styles.
  • Event: World War I

    The war lasted four years and ended with Primitivism as the blow-back to the war. The music consisted of a lot of anger and fear at what the war brought to the world in terms of violence, trauma and death.
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    Style: Dadaism

    Questioned traditional artistic expectations and brought to light more nonsensical ways of approaching art.
  • Event: Prohibition

    Music got a lot more interesting in the twenties. Ironically enough, as the government's hold of civilian's lives got tighter, music got looser, more free flowing and rid of rules.
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    Style: Non-Tonal

    Focused on musical elements besides pitch. Strings became less important and percussion was used to a completely different standard.