Political Chronology, 1895-1960

  • Cuban War of Independence begins

  • Period: to

    Cuban Political Chronology, 1895-1960

    Major Political Events in Cuba from the War of Independence to the first year of The Revolution.
  • Jose Marti, Apostle of the Revolution, killed in battle

  • Cuban rebels establish a provisional government

    Insurgent Cubans meet at Jimaguayu and elect Salvador Cisneros Betancourt as President of the Republic-at-arms
  • Maceo and Maximo Gomez launch invasion of western provinces

  • Maceo completes march into Pinar del Rio, Gomez begins military operations in Havana

  • Weyler launches policy of reconcentration

    The countryside peasants were told to evacuate to concentration camps with only what they could carry on their back. A significant amount of the Cuban population died (numbers disputed, highest end is around 20%).
  • Maceo killed in battle outside of Havana

  • Weyler is recalled, autonomy is granted to Cuba

  • U.S. intervenes in Cuba, Spanish-American War starts

  • Spain capitulates to the U.S.

  • Treaty of Paris signed- Cuba transferred to United States

  • Formal military occupation of Cuba by the United States begins

  • Constitutional Assembly convenes in Cuba to draft constitution

  • U.S. enacts Platt amendment

    Forced into the Cuban constitution, the Platt amendment grants the U.S. the right to intervene to protect life and property and avoid states of lawlessness or anarchy.
  • Cubans accept the Platt amendment in the constitution

    By a vote of 16 to 11 with 4 abstentions.
  • Tomas Estrada Palma elected first president

    He had been an organizer with Mart of the Cuban Revolutionary Party in New York. He ran unopposed, the other candidate dropped out due to having no representation in election boards that would certify results.
  • U.S. occupation officially ends

  • The three treaties

    Cuba and the U.S. sign 3 treaties.
    1. A reciprocity treaty, 20% discount on Cuban agricultural exports for 20%-40% reduction on tariffs for a wide variety of U.S. imports.
    2. Platt amendment as a permanent, formal treaty.
    3. Bahia Honda and Guantanamo leased to the U.S. for naval bases.
  • Tomas Estrada Palma defeats Liberal candidate Jose Miguel Gomez in a disputed election

  • Liberals launch an insurrection

    The government, unable to defeat it, requests intervention from the United States.
  • Second military occupation of Cuba by the U.S.

    A provisional government under a second American appointed consul rules Cuba until 1909.
  • The Agrupacion de Color, an Afro-Cuban protest party to fight racism, is founded

  • U.S. oversees election, Liberal Jose Miguel Gomez wins

    His term will be from 1908-1912
  • U.S. gives up rights to Bahia Honda for larger facilities at Guantanamo Naval Base

  • Afro-Cuban Rebellion is Crushed

    Afro-Cubans launch a rebellion in the Orient protesting socio-economic differences. It is brutally repressed. The United States lands troops to protect North American property.
  • Conservative Mario Garcia Menocal elected to a 4 year term

    His term will be 1912-1916
  • Menocal wins a second term in disputed election

    Liberals organize an insurrection, United States undertakes armed intervention in the regions of disorder and maintains a military presence in the eastern third of Cuba until 1922.
  • Cuba declares war on Germany in WW1

  • Popular Party President Alfredo Zayas wins election

    The first 3 years of the Zayas administration are under the direct control of U.S. special envoy Enoch H. Crowder due to political and economic problems
  • Second National Labor Congress Convenes in Havana

  • Dance of Millions

    From February to March the price of sugar skyrockets, reaching 22.5 cents. It collapses to 3.7 cents in December. Cuban economy plunges into disarray.
  • Veterans Protest and Patriot Movement

    Veterans and other political agitators protest socio-economic conditions in Cuba.
  • First National Women's Congress meets in Havana

  • First National Congress of Students convenes in Havana

    It is under the leadership of communist firebrand student, Julio Antonio Mella.
  • Gerardo Machado elected to his first term

  • National Confederation of Cuban Workers (CNOC) is founded

    This occurs at the Third National Labor Congress, CNOC stands for Confederación Nacional Obrera de Cuba.
  • Cuban communist party is founded

  • Custom-Tariffs law enacted providing protectionist relief for Cuban manufacturers

  • Opposition to Machado increases

    Carlos Mendieta leads disaffected liberals to launch the Asociacion Union Nacionalista.
  • The Student Directorate (DEU) is established.

    DEU stands for Direction Estudiantil Universitario.
  • Machado elected unconstitutionally to a 6 year term

  • U.S. Hawley Smoot Tariff reduces Cuban share of sugar market

    This exacerbated the economic conditions on the island.
  • CNOC organizes a general strike against Machado

  • Student demonstrations led to death of Rafael Trejo, a student.

  • Old-line political chieftains try to rebel

    Mario Garcia Menocal, President from 1912-1920 and Liberal Carlos Mendieta launch a failed armed uprising against Machado at Gibara in Eastern Cuba.
  • Sindicato Nacional de Obreras de la Industra Azucarera (SNOIA) is founded

    First national union of sugar workers.
  • Ambassador Sumner Welles comes to Cuba for mediation

    The worsening political crisis prompts the U.S. organize mediation between Machado and his opposition.
  • General Strike, Machado flees the country

    Carlos Manuel de Cespedes installed as President in a semi-military coup.
  • Fulgencio Batista Seargent's Revolt

    A new provisional government headed by Dr. Ramon Grau San Martin comes to power- this is known as the 100 days government and it is progressive, initiating a wide range of social, economic, and political reforms.
  • Batista overthrows Grau government

    He installs Carlos Mendieta as president.
  • Ramon Grau San Martin and others organize the Partido Revolucionaro Cubano (PRC)- The Autenticos

  • U.S. abrogates the Platt amendment

  • Strike of 1935

    In February and March massive strikes almost overthrow the government. Batista suppresses them brutally.
  • Antonio Guiteras killed fleeing to Mexico

    Radical leader and part of the 100 days government, he dies in a gun battle with the Cuban army.
  • Mendieta resigns presidency

    Facing intense pressure from political opposition he is replaced by his secretary of state, Jose A. Barnet.
  • Elections orchestrated from Washington lead to the election of Miguel Mariano Gomez

  • President Gomez impeached by Congress

    Batista works with his allies to secure his ouster because of his opposition to the army's bid to take over rural education. Federico Laredo Bru, his VP, serves the balance of the four year term.
  • CNOC reorganized as Confederacion de Trabajadores (workers) de Cuba (CTC)

  • Communist Party obtains recognition as a legal political organization

    In return, it agrees to support Batista for president.
  • New Constitution, Batista elected President to a 4 year term

  • Cuba declares war on Germany, Japan, Italy, days after Pearl Harbor

  • Ramon Grau San Martin elected to a four year term, Autentico Party now in power

  • Eddy Chibas breaks with the Autenticos and Organizes the Partido del Cueblo Cubano (Ortoxo)

  • Carlos Prio Socarras elected to a 4 year term

  • Senator Eddy Chibas commits suicide

    He does so after a national radio address. In his final speech he warns of the decay of democratic institutions and predicts return of military rule.
  • Batista's coup

    Through a military coup he seizes power and ousts the administration, ending constitutional government in Cuba.
  • Fidel Castro attacks the Moncada Barracks in Santiago

    The attack fails, survivors are sentenced to 15 year prison terms.
  • Running unopposed, Batista elected to another 4 year term.

  • Batista proclaims general amnesty, Fidel is released, leaves to Mexico.

    From Mexico he will organize armed resistance as the leader of a newly organized 26th of July Movement, named after his attack on Moncada.
  • Fidel invades Cuba aboard the Granma Yacht

    He establishes operations in the Sierra Maestra mountains of southeastern Cuba.
  • Colonel Ramon Barquin arrested for plotting against government

    More than 200 officers are implicated in the conspiracy.
  • Fidel leads first successful guerilla operation

    Fidel attacks a rural guard post at La Plata in the Sierra Maestra foothills, succeeds.
  • Jose Antonio Echeverria killed

    After an attempt to kill Batista by assaulting the palace fails, leader of the Directorio Revolucionario, Echeverria, is gunned down in the street.
  • Naval mutiny at Cienfuegos

    Leads to a temporary seizure of the local naval station before control is regained.
  • Raul Castro establishes a second front in Sierra Cristal Mountains

    This is in the northern Oriente province.
  • United States imposes arms embargo on Batista

  • Strike failure

    The attempt by the 26th of July movement to topple the government through a general strike fails.
  • Batista launches major offensive

    This operation fails, and the Guerilla columns mount a counteroffensive into the central provinces.
  • Batista decides to flee

    Fearing a military coup led by general Eulogio Cantillo, Batista decides to leave Cuba.
  • Batista flees Cuba in the early hours of January 1st

  • General Strike forces military to relinquish power to 26th of July movement

  • Fidel Castro becomes prime minister

  • Government enacts the agrarian reform bill

  • Mass organizations founded

    Over the course of 1960 a number of organizations are founded, including the militia, the committees for the defense of the revolution (CDRs), Federation of Cuban Women (FMC), Association of Young Rebels (AJR), National Organization of Small Peasants (ANAP)
  • Cuba and the Soviet union reestablish diplomatic relations

  • Cuba nationalizes U..S. petroleum

  • U.S. government cuts Cuban sugar quota.

  • North American properties seized by Cuban government

    Between August and October, additional properties are seized, including banks, utilities, railroads, hotels, sugar mills, and factories.
  • U.S. imposes trade embargo

  • Cuban government proclaims "Year of Education"

    This is a national campaign to eliminate illiteracy.
  • U.S. and Cuba sever diplomatic relations

  • Bay of Pigs (Playa Giron) Invasion fails

    Some 1,200 expeditionaries are taken prisoner.