The Sci. Rev. and all that it entailed was a massive movement for Society, Culture, and Intellectual/Technologal ideas.
Oct 30, 1473
N. Copernicus - I/T
Nich. Copernicus, believed in Heliocentric system of the Universe. Book Rev. of Heavenly Spheres was a precedent for criticism of the Univ.
Oct 30, 1546
T. Brahe - I/T
Tycho Brahe advocated a geocentric system of the universe. Spent many hours collecting data with the naked eye.
Oct 30, 1561
F. Bacon - I/T, P
Father of empiricism (That one must observe phenomena before attempting to explain or figure it out.) Did not support Scholastic beliefs. Associated with politics.
Oct 30, 1564
Galileo - I/T, C, P
G.G. advocated Copernicus's model.
Argued that nature displayed mathimatical regularity, and the Universe was rational (like math).
Politics because he won favor by naming planets after the Medicis.
Oct 30, 1571
J. Kepler - I/T, S
Johannes Kepler, Brahe's assistant, took charge of his mentor's data and used it to find a new astronomical model that showed the planets moving in elliptical orbits. He supported a Heliocentric view.
Oct 30, 1573
Baroque Art - C, P
Michaelangelo Caravaggio - sharp contrasts, very dramatic
Gian Lorenzo Bernini - very famous decor in St. Peter's Basilica
P. P. Rubens - decorated Charlie I's banquet hall ceiling. Leading relig. painter of Cath. Ref.
Palace at Versailles - most famous monument to Baroque Art.
T. Hobbes - C, S
Original phil. Had a very dark view of humans and advocated strong political authority. Rulers should be absolute.
R. Descartes - I/T, S, R
Rejected Schol. thinking. Supported mathimatical thought and reasoning. Questioned God.
M. Cavendish - I/T, S
Well educated woman. Questioned other's ideas, the ONLY woman in the 17th cen. to sit in a meeting of the Royal Soc.of London. Feminist.
B. Pascal - I/T, S, R
wrote Pensees, "provocative collection of reflections on humankind." Ally of the Jansenists. Reason and faith..better to believe in God then not at all
J. Locke - S, P
Defended the rights of peple against absolute rulers. (Opposite of Hobbes). Also believed that humans were creatures of reason and goodwill.
Condemnation of G. - P, S
Galileo condemned by Roman Cath's. G. supported Copernicus beliefs which were prohibited. Was warned but did not listen, also made the Pope look ridiculous - was put under house arrest for last 9yrs of his life.
Sir I. Newton - I/T, S
Established a basis for physics. Reasoned that the planets moved through being attracted to each other, (gravity). This attraction made them move in an orderly fashion. Believed in empiricism.
Instituions of Knowledge - I/T, S
Royal Society of London, French Academy of Sci., Berlin Academy of Sci. = all places to observe experiments, hold discussions. Diverse in who they admitted in. These groups ended up becoming the base for Enlightenment.
English Approach to Sci. and Relig. - R, S, I/T
Most philosophers believed that to study nature was to study God and to understand him better. (Pantheism?) Sci. and religion were not only compatible, but also supported each other.
Witch Hunts + Panic - S, E, R
This happened between 1400-1700, where there were Religious Wars happening. This put strain on many people and it soon turned to Witch Hunts. Women were targeted 80% of the time.
M. Winkelmann - I/T
Maria W. worked with husband Gottfried Kirch. Discovere a comet in 1702. (was not given credit)
E. du C. - I/T
Emilie du Chatelet Helped Voltaire with a composition and had vast mathematical skills. Translated Princ. Mathe. (Newton) Femenist.