Nelson's History of Oceanography

Timeline created by Nelsondow3
  • Feb 26, 1000

    Copper fishing hooks (5000 B.C.)

    Copper fishing hooks (5000 B.C.)
    First records of copper fishing hooks being used.
  • Feb 26, 1100

    First recorded ocean voyage (3200 B.C.)

    First recorded ocean voyage (3200 B.C.)
    Made from Egypt to the South Arabian Penninsula and the Red Sea
  • Feb 26, 1150

    Alexander the Great (1500 B.C.)

    Alexander the Great (1500 B.C.)
    Alexander the Great led his troops to the sea's edge. They expected to gain honor by fighting the massive sea monsters, but instead stumbled upon the tides. This was the first recorded observations on the tides.
  • Feb 26, 1200

    Dried fish trade in the Persian Gulf (~1200 B.C.)

    Dried fish trade in the Persian Gulf (~1200 B.C.)
  • Feb 26, 1300

    Eratosthenes maps World (264-194 B.C.)

     Eratosthenes maps World (264-194 B.C.)
    Eratosthenes calculates the diameter of the World by measuring the angle of the Sun compared with the Earth. He measured it at 46,620 km and was only shy of the diameter we now know is 40,067 km
  • Feb 26, 1450

    Prince Henry the Navigator

    Prince Henry the Navigator
    Prince Henry the Navigator sent several expeditions down the West coast of Africa.
  • Feb 26, 1492

    Christopher Columbus

    Christopher Columbus
    Columbus sailed to the Caribbean, thinking he had circumnavigated the World and reached Asia.
  • Feb 26, 1513

    Florida and Florida Current discovered

    Florida and Florida Current discovered
    Juan Ponce de Leon (1474-1521) was a Spanish explorer who led the first European expedition to Florida. The Florida Current would become a primary route for eastbound ships heading for Europe.
  • Feb 26, 1513

    Discovery of Pacific Ocean

    Discovery of Pacific Ocean
    Vasco Nunez crossed the Isthmus of Panama to discover the Pacific Ocean. He was the first European explorer to lead an expedition in the Pacific.
  • Feb 26, 1522

    First circumnaviagation of the World (1519-1522)

    First circumnaviagation of the World (1519-1522)
    Ferdinand Magellan (1480-1521) was a Spanish explorer who was the first to lead a journey from the Altantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean. He was also the first to cross the Pacific Ocean. Unfortunately, Magellan himself never completed the voyage, as he was eated by cannibals in the Philippines.
  • Marine Chronometer Invented

    Marine Chronometer Invented
    John Harrison (1693-1776) was an English carpenter who invented the marine chronometer, which was used to determine the longitude of a ship at sea. This made long distance travel much safer for sailors.
  • James Cook (1729-1779)

    James Cook (1729-1779)
    Took the first soundings and made many observations on currents, winds and temperatures. He was one of the first pioneers in the understandings that we have of the oceans today.
  • Matthew F. Maury (1806-1873)

    Matthew F. Maury (1806-1873)
    Created the first atlas which contained the oceans with currents and sea conditions.
  • HMS Challenger (1872-1876)

    HMS Challenger (1872-1876)
    First oceanographic voyage collected data chemical, geographical and currents of the seas.
  • ICES

    ICES
    International Council for the Exploration of the Seas. Functions to exchange marine science information in the North Atlantic. Promotes marine research, publishes papers on findings and provides advice for member nations.
  • Theory of Continental Drift

    Theory of Continental Drift
    German scientist Alfred Wegener proposed his theory of continental drift. One piece of evidence was identical fossils found in both Africa and South America
  • The Meteor (1925-1927)

    The Meteor (1925-1927)
    Germany sent out The Meteor on an oceanographic exploration to gather data on water temperature, depth soundings, water samples and marine life. The Meteor was the first voyage to discover the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.
  • NOAA created

    NOAA created
    For the purpose of monitoring ocean exploration as well as to have a division that could better protect us from natural hazards.
  • U.S. JGOFS (Join Global Ocean Flux Study) 1990's

    U.S. JGOFS (Join Global Ocean Flux Study) 1990's
    A program that tracks solar radiation, active biological elements and oceanic plant growth using ships, satellites and sensor buoys.
  • TOPEX (Poseidon)

    TOPEX (Poseidon)
    A satelite launched by the U.S. and France to explore ocean circulation patterns and ocean surface topography. It talks to buoeys and relays the data to us. TOPEX has provided data on sea level, tides, climate change, El Nino and La Nina from 1992 to 2006.
  • WOCE (World Ocean Circulation Experiment)

    WOCE (World Ocean Circulation Experiment)
    Studies the World's oceans using computer models and chemical tracers. Also makes models of the oceans and can predit long term changes in the oceans and atmosphere.
  • Office of Ocean Exploration

    Office of Ocean Exploration
    NOAA creates the Office of Ocean Exploration, which was established to encourage more oceanographic explorations