N.Minch, Midterm Timeline project

  • Period: 500 to 1450

    The Medieval Period (500-1450)

    The chapter three timeline goes from 300-1350, most Scholars usually say from 500-1500, or 476 the fall of the Roman empire to 1492, the discovery of America.
  • 1030

    Guido of Arezzo's "Micrologus" (ca. 1030)

    Guido of Arezzo's "Micrologus" (ca. 1030)
    The "Micrologus" was a treatise that was famous for explaining voice-leading rules in Gregorian chant and the Hexachord system. He also made a system of Solmization, which would develop into our modern day solfege. The Micrologus used musical staffs which is often attributed to Guido and eventually became standard for all notated music.
  • 1098

    Hildegard of Bingen (1098-1179)

    Hildegard of Bingen (1098-1179)
  • 1323

    Ars Nova (1323)

    Ars Nova (1323)
    This treatise introduced the first real standardized use of notated time. A breve would divide out into semi-breve and minim. A breve would divide out into groups of three because of the symbolic importance of the trinity.
  • Period: 1450 to

    Renaissance (1450-1600)

  • 1485

    Josquin’s Motet: Ave Maria... virgo serena (ca.1485)

    Josquin’s Motet: Ave Maria... virgo serena (ca.1485)
  • 1529

    Martin Luther's, Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott(A Mighty Fortress is our God) (1529)

    Martin Luther's, Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott(A Mighty Fortress is our God) (1529)
  • 1538

    Arcadelt Madrigal "Il bianco e dolce cigno" (ca.1538)

    Arcadelt Madrigal "Il bianco e dolce cigno" (ca.1538)
  • 1567

    Pope Marcellus Mass (published 1567)

    Pope Marcellus Mass (published 1567)
    The myth of the Pope Marcellus Mass was that it saved polyphonic music from the council of Trent. A goal of the council of trend was to keep secular elements out of the church, and because of how difficult it was to understand the words to polyphonic music, it was about to be banned by the new cannon low. The Pope commissioned a work written polyphonically here the words could be understood, resulting in this work.
  • Missa O magnum mysterium (1592)

    Missa O magnum mysterium (1592)
  • Gabrieli Sonata pian’e forte (1597)

    Gabrieli Sonata pian’e forte (1597)
    The piece is significant because it is the first European work to specifically call for brass instruments likes the sackbut and cornett. This piece also had notated uses for dynamics, which had not appeared before.
  • Period: to

    Baroque Era

  • Monteverdi's L’Orfeo

    Monteverdi's L’Orfeo
    This was the first Opera to enter the standard repertory. Opera was written for the wedding of Duke Mantua's daughter. The opera follows the story of the Greek god of music Orpheus in his struggle to revive his fallen wife Euridice. The first performance of the opera featured the librettist Alessandro Striggio and only men were allowed to perform the first performance.
  • First public concerts of England

    First public concerts of England
    Public concerts began in England in 1672, and where the first to pioneer them. The English public concerts culminated into three trends,
    1) Increased desire for the middle class to listen to music,
    2) Excellent musicians joining royal courts and theatres,
    3) Professional musicians supplementing their income because of lackluster wages from the royal courts.
    Public concerts were available to anyone who could purchase a ticket, which started a trend of consumer culture.
  • JS Bach (1685-1750)

    JS Bach (1685-1750)
    German Composer
  • Antonio Vivaldi's L’Estro Armonico

    Antonio Vivaldi's L’Estro Armonico
    L'Estro Armonico was a collection of 12 violin concertos written by Vivaldi. The collection was published by by Etienne Roger in Amsterdam, the most prestigious publisher in Europe at the time. This collection of concertos was significant because it helped to codify the mature baroque concerto form, and because it propagated the popularity of the Italian concerto throughout the continent.
  • Rameau's Traité de l’harmonie

    Rameau's Traité de l’harmonie
    The "Traité de l’harmonie" was a text that described the framework of music theory that we still use today. Rameau outlined the pillars of western harmony (sub-dominant-dominant-tonic) and the fundamental bass line. He was the first to bring all the core theoretical ideas together, making his text one of the most influential pieces for all the composers and theorist after him.
  • Bach's The Well-Tempered Clavier volume 1

    Bach's The Well-Tempered Clavier volume 1
    The Well-Tempered Clavier was a collecting of Preludes and fugues in all 12 of the major and minor keys(48 pieces). The purpose of the work was to demonstrate the characteristics of each of each key signature under the new equal temperament system. The writing in this text was also fantastic, it is a pillar for education and performance to this way.
  • Period: to

    Pre-Classical Era

  • Franz Joseph Hayden (1732-1809)

    Franz Joseph Hayden (1732-1809)
  • Handel's Messiah

    Handel's Messiah
    This oratorio was performed in Dublin in 1742 during lent. The music presents a series of contemplations on Christian ideas extending from Isaiah's prophecy to the reresection of Christ. The piece is views as innovative and new because of How Handel incorporated the chorus into the story and used narrative elements.
  • Le Chevalier de Saint-Georges as director of Concerts des Amateurs

    Le Chevalier de Saint-Georges as director of Concerts des Amateurs
    Was the Music Director of Concert des Amateurs between 1773-1781, which was viewed as one of the best orchestras in Europe. He was the son of a French colonial official and a slave. He was revered as one of the best composers in Europe at the time and President John Adams called him the most accomplished man in Europe. He was also a master swordsman.
  • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791)

    Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart  (1756-1791)
  • Period: to

    Viennese Classical Period

  • Mozart's Don Giovanni

    Mozart's Don Giovanni
    Don Giovanni was a satire opera that is considered to be one of Mozart's greatest works.
  • Haydn's Symphony No. 94 "Surprise"

    Haydn's Symphony No. 94 "Surprise"
  • Beethoven Symphony No. 5 in C minor- World premiere 1808

    Beethoven Symphony No. 5 in C minor- World premiere 1808
    This Symphony was significant for a number of reasons. For one, I corresponded to the tim when Beethoven became increasing aware of his deafness- which likely contributed to his instrument and textural choices. The transition between the 3rd and 4th movement are thought to be "The greatest of all time."
    Also famous for being first to incorporate trombone, piccolo and Contra-Bassoon
  • Schubert Erlkönig (composition date)

    Schubert Erlkönig (composition date)
    This was a Lied composed to set the poem written by Goethe of the same name. The music was through composed and featured a singer who would shift his perspective between 4 characters- the Erlkönig, a father, his son, and a narrator.
  • Nicolo Paganini 24 Caprices for Violin, op.1-Composed 1805; Published 1820

    Paganini's 24 caprices were a set of technical etudes that were written to sharply contrast with the stylistic norms of the time. All the Caprices were theme and variations, and the work was dedicated to all musicians. At the time, the music was deemed unplayable.
  • Frederic Chopin Mazurkas Op.7 1830 – 1832

    The Mazurkas were sets of polish dance music, but through Chopin's efforts to write the music the dance style is almost entirely associated with Chopin today. A Chopin Mazurka features a dance meter, but often features lots of rubato, chromaticism, and left hand arpeggiated runs for most of the accompaniment.
  • Berlioz Symphonie fantastique 1830

    This work is famous for being on of the first major programmatic Symphonies. It is regarded as on of the first major endeavors into psychedelic music. The Instrumentation of the Symphony was large- requiring about 90 musicians
  • Fanny Mendelssohn-Hensel Das Jahr

    Music written by the talented Sister of Felix Mendelssohn, The work was a set of 12 character pieces- one for each month of the year. The music was performed to commemorate her fathers birthday.
  • Louis Moreau Gottschalk Souvenir de Porto Rico (1857)

    This music was written during a trip to Porto Rico and featured a mix of local Puerto Rican rhythms and Styles. (tresillo,cinquillos, ash a Habanera). The work also featured components of the Ragtime style that did not yet exist, and arpeggiated figures reminiscent of Chopin. The melody was based on a Christmas theme the towns peasants would sing.
  • Mussorgsky Pictures at an Exhibition

    Mussorgsky Pictures at an Exhibition
    A suite of 10 piano works inspired by the painter Viktor Hartmann. The work is a major piece of the modern orchestral repertoire.
  • Bizet Carmen

    Bizet Carmen
    The work featured the normative 4 part singer quartet and was about the gypsy Carmen. To encapsulate the gypsy character, the interval of the augmented 2nd was heavily used. The work is though to be exotic because of the many Caribbean rhythms used throughout is, such as in the habanera.
  • Richard Wagner- Der Ring des Nibelungen

    Richard Wagner- Der Ring des Nibelungen
    This set of operas (or musical dramas) was significant for its length, its use of Leitmotif's, a larger array of orchestral brass instruments.
  • Brahms' Symphony No.4

    Brahms' Symphony No.4
    This symphony Was significant in the course of our class because of the chromatic nature of the Primary theme in the first movement. The motif would go on to inspire other composers like schoenberg to develop 12 tone music
  • Mahler Symphony No.1 (premiere)

    Mahler Symphony No.1 (premiere)
    This work was controversial for its usage of a funeral march that features two prominent character themes, the catholic Frère Jacques and a klezmer inspired theme. The Symphony was initially poorly received.
  • Dvorak Symphony No. 9 "From the New World"

    Dvorak Symphony No. 9 "From the New World"
    The work was written by Dvorak during his time teaching in the US. In incorporated native American, African spirituals, and Appalachian music.